# 9: Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry studies the structure, properties and reactions of organic compounds that contain carbon in covalent bonding.

• 9.1: Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• 9.2: Alkanes
Alkanes are organic compounds that consist entirely of single-bonded carbon and hydrogen atoms and lack any other functional groups. Alkanes have the general formula CnH2n+2CnH2n+2 and can be subdivided into the following three groups: the linear straight-chain alkanes, branched alkanes, and cycloalkanes. Alkanes are also saturated hydrocarbons. Alkanes are the simplest and least reactive hydrocarbon species containing only carbons and hydrogens.
• 9.3: Alkenes
Alkenes are a class of hydrocarbons (e.g, containing only carbon and hydrogen) unsaturated compounds with at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond. Another term used to describe alkenes is olefins. Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes due to the presence of the double bond.
• 9.4: Alkynes
Alkynes are organic molecules made of one ore more carbon-carbon triple bonds. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons and are written in the empirical formula of $$C_nH_{2n-2}$$.
• 9.5: Cyclics
A cyclic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon in which the carbon chain joins to itself in a ring.
• 9.6: Isomers
• 9.7: Hydrogenation
• 9.8: Functional Group introduction
• 9.9: Aromatics
Aromatic hydrocarbons are one of the three classes of compounds found in petroleum. They are less abundant than the alkanes and cycloalkanes, amounting to only a few percent of the total, but they are quite important commercially. Most aromatic hydrocarbons contain a benzene ring. You will recall from the discussion on resonance that benzene contains a flat ring of six carbon atoms joined by bonds which are intermediate in character between single and double bonds.
• 9.E: Organic Chemistry (Exercises)
These are homework exercises to accompany Chapter 7 of the Furman University's LibreText for CHE 101 - Chemistry and Global Awareness.
• 9.10: Alcohols
• 9.11: Ethers
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an oxygen between two alkyl groups. They have the formula R-O-R', with R's being the alkyl groups. these compounds are used in dye, perfumes, oils, waxes and industrial use. Ethers are named as alkoxyalkanes.
• 9.12: Carbonyl Friends
• 9.13: Amines and Thiols