We previously learned about aqueous solutions and their importance, as well as about solubility rules. While this gives us a picture of solubility, that picture is not complete if we look at the rules alone. Solubility equilibrium, which we will explore in this chapter, is a more complex topic that allows us to determine the extent to which a slightly soluble ionic solid will dissolve, and the conditions under which precipitation.
- 4.1: Precipitation and Dissolution
- The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium involving the precipitation or dissolution of a slightly soluble ionic solid is called the solubility product, Ksp, of the solid. The solubility product of a slightly soluble electrolyte can be calculated from its solubility; conversely, its solubility can be calculated from its Ksp, provided the only significant reaction that occurs when the solid dissolves is the formation of its ions.
- 4.2: Lewis Acids and Bases
- A Lewis acid is a species that can accept an electron pair, whereas a Lewis base has an electron pair available for donation to a Lewis acid. Complex ions are examples of Lewis acid-base adducts. In a complex ion, we have a central atom, often consisting of a transition metal cation, which acts as a Lewis acid, and several neutral molecules or ions surrounding them called ligands that act as Lewis bases. Complex ions form by sharing electron pairs to form coordinate covalent bonds.
- 4.3: Coupled Equilibria
- Several systems we encounter consist of multiple equilibria, systems where two or more equilibria processes are occurring simultaneously. Some common examples include acid rain, fluoridation, and dissolution of carbon dioxide in sea water. When looking at these systems, we need to consider each equilibrium separately and then combine the individual equilibrium constants into one solubility product or reaction quotient expression using the tools from the first equilibrium chapter.
- 4.4: Equilibria of Other Reaction Classes (Exercises)
- These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Chemistry" by OpenStax. Complementary General Chemistry question banks can be found for other Textmaps and can be accessed here. In addition to these publicly available questions, access to private problems bank for use in exams and homework is available to faculty only on an individual basis; please contact Delmar Larsen for an account with access permission.
Contributors and Attributions
Paul Flowers (University of North Carolina - Pembroke), Klaus Theopold (University of Delaware) and Richard Langley (Stephen F. Austin State University) with contributing authors. Textbook content produced by OpenStax College is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. Download for free at http://cnx.org/contents/85abf193-2bd...firstname.lastname@example.org).