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Chemistry LibreTexts

1: Aldehydes and Ketones

  • Page ID
    • 1.1: Functional Groups in Organic Compounds
      The functional group, a structural arrangement of atoms and/or bonds, is largely responsible for the properties of organic compound families.
    • 1.2: Aldehydes and Ketones- Structure and Names
      The common names of aldehydes are taken from the names of the corresponding carboxylic acids: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and so on. The common names of ketones, like those of ethers, consist of the names of the groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by the word ketone. Stem names of aldehydes and ketones are derived from those of the parent alkanes, using an -al ending for an aldehydes and an -one ending for a ketone.
    • 1.3: Bonding in the Carbonyl Group
      A carbonyl group is a chemically organic functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom --> [C=O] The simplest carbonyl groups are aldehydes and ketones usually attached to another carbon compound. These structures can be found in many aromatic compounds contributing to smell and taste.
    • 1.4: Physical Properties of Aldehydes and Ketones
      The polar carbon-to-oxygen double bond causes aldehydes and ketones to have higher boiling points than those of ethers and alkanes of similar molar masses but lower than those of comparable alcohols that engage in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.
    • 1.5: Chemical properties I- Oxidation of Aldehydes and Ketones
      This page looks at ways of distinguishing between aldehydes and ketones using oxidizing agents such as acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution, Tollens' reagent, Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution.
    • 1.6: Chemical properties II- Reactions of aldehydes and ketones with alcohols
      In this organic chemistry topic, we shall see how alcohols (R-OH) add to carbonyl groups. Carbonyl groups are characterized by a carbon-oxygen double bond. The two main functional groups that consist of this carbon-oxygen double bond are Aldehydes and Ketones.
    • 1.7: 1.7-Chemical properties III- Catalytic Hydrogenation
      Since aldehydes and ketones have an intermediate oxidation state among organic compounds, they can undergo oxidation (aldehydes) but also reduction
    • 1.8: Chemical properties IV- Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones
      This page looks at the reduction of aldehydes and ketones by two similar reducing agents - lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III) (also known as lithium aluminium hydride) and sodium tetrahydridoborate(III) (sodium borohydride).

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