2: Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases
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This chapter provides a review of the more advanced material covered in a standard introductory chemistry course through a discussion of the following topics:
- the drawing and interpretation of organic chemical structures.
- the use of ball-and-stick molecular models.
- the concept of formal charge.
- the use of electronegativities to determine bond polarity, and the application of this knowledge to determining whether a given molecule possesses a dipole moment.
- the Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of acids and bases, acidity constants and acid-base reactions.
- 2.1: Polar Covalent Bonds- Electronegativity
- 2.2: Polar Covalent Bonds- Dipole Moments
- 2.3: Formal Charges
- 2.4: Resonance
- 2.5: Rules for Resonance Forms
- 2.6: Drawing Resonance Forms
- 2.7: Acids and Bases- The Brønsted-Lowry Definition
- 2.8: Acid and Base Strength
- 2.9: Predicting Acid-Base Reactions from pKa Values
- 2.10: Organic Acids and Organic Bases
- 2.11: Acids and Bases- The Lewis Definition
- 2.12: Noncovalent Interactions Between Molecules
- 2.13: Molecular Models
- 2.S: Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases (Summary)