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7: Case Studies- Kinetics

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    • 7.1: Catalytic Converters
      A catalytic converter is a device used to reduce the emissions from an internal combustion engine (used in most modern day automobiles and vehicles). Not enough oxygen is available to oxidize the carbon fuel in these engines completely into carbon dioxide and water; thus toxic by-products are produced. Catalytic converters are used in exhaust systems to provide a site for the oxidation and reduction of toxic by-products.
    • 7.2: Chymotrypsin
      Chymotrypsin is a digestive enzyme belonging to a super family of enzymes called serine proteases. It uses an active serine residue to perform hydrolysis on the C-terminus of the aromatic amino acids of other proteins. Chymotrypsin is a protease enzyme that cleaves on the C-terminal phenylalanine (F), tryptophan (W), and tyrosine (Y) on peptide chains. It shows specificity for aromatic amino acids because of its hydrophobic pocket.
    • 7.3: Depletion of the Ozone Layer
      The earth's stratospheric ozone layer plays a critical role in absorbing ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. In the last thirty years, it has been discovered that stratospheric ozone is depleting as a result of anthropogenic pollutants. There are a number of chemical reactions that can deplete stratospheric ozone; however, some of the most significant of these involves the catalytic destruction of ozone by halogen radicals such as chlorine and bromine.
    • 7.4: Smog
      Smog is a common form of air pollution found mainly in urban areas and large population centers. The term refers to any type of atmospheric pollution—regardless of source, composition, or concentration—that creates a significant reduction in atmospheric visibility. Smog encompasses a broad category of air pollutants created through a multitude of processes that relate specifically to the atmospheric conditions of the formation region.

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