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Group Theory

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    Symmetry is very important in chemistry researches and group theory is the tool that is used to determine symmetry. Usually, it is not only the symmetry of molecule but also the symmetries of some local atoms, molecular orbitals, rotations and vibrations of bonds, etc. that are important.

    • Group Theory: Theory
      Symmetry can help resolve many chemistry problems and usually the first step is to determine the symmetry. If we know how to determine the symmetry of small molecules, we can determine symmetry of other targets which we are interested in. Therefore, this module will introduce basic concepts of group theory and after reading this module, you will know how to determine the symmetries of small molecules.
    • Group Theory and its Application to Chemistry
      Group Theory is the mathematical application of symmetry to an object to obtain knowledge of its physical properties. What group theory brings to the table, is how the symmetry of a molecule is related to its physical properties and provides a quick simple method to determine the relevant physical information of the molecule.
    • Understanding Character Tables of Symmetry Groups
      Every molecule has a point group associated with it, which are assigned by a set for rules (explained by Group theory). The character tables takes the point group and represents all of the symmetry that the molecule has.
    • Woodward-Hoffmann rules
      Electrocyclic reactions. The selection rule of electrocyclization reactions is given in the original statement of the Woodward–Hoffmann rules. If a generalized electrocyclic ring closure occurs in a polyene of 4n π-electrons, then it is conrotatory under thermal conditions and disrotatory under photochemical conditions.

    Group Theory is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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