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Chemical Bonding - A Review

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  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    Here are some suggested examples.

      .      .     ..     ..
      N      N     N      N
    /  \\  // \   / \\  // \
    O   O  O   O O   O  O   O
                 .          .
    The paired electrons are not shown here.
  • What is the formal charge of \(\ce{N}\) in the following dot structure?
     /  \\
    O     O

    Hint: Number of electrons around N = 1 + (6/2)

    Skill: Evaluate the formal charge of any atom of any dot structure.
    What is the formal charge for the resonance structure having the odd electron on the oxygen atom?

  • What is the bond order for the \(\ce{N-O}\) bond in \(\ce{NO2}\)?

    Hint: Bond order = 1.5

    Discussion: Four resonance structures have been given, and all indicate a bond order of 1.5 for \(\ce{[O-N=O]}\) <=> \(\ce{[O=N-O]}\).

  • What quantities are required in order to calculate the lattice energy of \(\ce{NaCl}\)?

    Hint: Huum! This sounds like a real-world problem.

    Skill: Solving real-world problems requires you to know what information to look for before the problem is solvable. This is one of those problems.

    In an exercise or an open-book test, we can ask you to evaluate the lattice energy of a salt, and you need to find the various data. Since the CAcT quiz is an open-book test, this type of problem should have been given, but you will not have this type of problem in this quiz.

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  • Contributors and Attributions

    Chemical Bonding - A Review is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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