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Electron Density of \(\sigma\) and \(\pi\) Bonds

  • Page ID
  • hybrid orbitals for the sigma bonds.

       C = O;  but a p orbital is used for the pi bond between C and O.
  • What hybrid atomic orbitals are used for the \(\ce{C}\) in \(\ce{CCl4}\)?

    Hint: The sp4 hybrid orbitals of \(\ce{C}\) are involved.

    Discussion -
    The sp3 hybrid AO's have points towards the vertices of a tetrahedron.

  • What is the value of the bond angles around the \(\ce{C}\) atom in \(\ce{CH3OH}\)?

    Hint: The bond angle is 109.5 degrees.

    Discussion -
    The tetrahedral arrangement of the bonds around \(\ce{C}\) in methanol gives an average bond angle of 109.5°.

  • What is the bond order between carbon atoms in the benzene molecule?

    Hint: The bond order is 1.5 in benzene.

    Discussion -
    Three double bonds spread over 6 \(\ce{C-C}\) bonds. Thus, the bond order is 1.5.

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