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Electron Density of $$\sigma$$ and $$\pi$$ Bonds


hybrid orbitals for the sigma bonds.

H
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C = O;  but a p orbital is used for the pi bond between C and O.
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H

• What hybrid atomic orbitals are used for the $$\ce{C}$$ in $$\ce{CCl4}$$?

Hint: The sp4 hybrid orbitals of $$\ce{C}$$ are involved.

Discussion -
The sp3 hybrid AO's have points towards the vertices of a tetrahedron.

• What is the value of the bond angles around the $$\ce{C}$$ atom in $$\ce{CH3OH}$$?

Hint: The bond angle is 109.5 degrees.

Discussion -
The tetrahedral arrangement of the bonds around $$\ce{C}$$ in methanol gives an average bond angle of 109.5°.

• What is the bond order between carbon atoms in the benzene molecule?

Hint: The bond order is 1.5 in benzene.

Discussion -
Three double bonds spread over 6 $$\ce{C-C}$$ bonds. Thus, the bond order is 1.5.

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