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17: Thermochemistry

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    • 17.1: Chemical Potential Energy
    • 17.2: Heat
    • 17.3: Exothermic and Endothermic Processes
    • 17.4: Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
    • 17.5: Specific Heat Calculations
    • 17.6: Enthalpy
      The factors influencing a reaction are complicated and varied. Since a catalyst affects activation energy, we might assume it would have some sort of impact on the amount of heat that is absorbed or released by the reaction—but it does not. The change in heat content of a reaction depends solely on the chemical compositions of the reactants and products, not on the path taken to get from one to the other.
    • 17.7: Calorimetry
      At one time, calories in foods were measured with a bomb calorimeter. A weighed amount of the food would be placed in the calorimeter and the system was then sealed and filled with oxygen. An electric spark ignited the food-oxygen mixture. The amount of heat released when the food burned gave an idea of the calories present within the food. Today, calories are calculated from the protein, carbohydrate, and fat content of food (all determined by chemical analysis).
    • 17.8: Thermochemical Equations
      Heating a home is becoming more and more expensive. The decision to use gas, oil, electricity, or wood can be multi-faceted. Part of the decision is based on which fuel will provide the highest amount of energy release when burned. Studies of thermochemistry can be very useful in getting reliable information for making these important choices.
    • 17.9: Stoichiometric Calculations and Enthalpy Changes
      There is a growing concern about damage to the environment done by emissions from manufacturing plants. Many companies are taking steps to reduce these harmful emissions by adding equipment that will trap the pollutants. In order to know what equipment (and the quantity) to order, studies are done to measure the amount of product currently produced. Since pollution is often both particulate and thermal, energy changes need to be determined in addition to the amounts of products released.
    • 17.10: Heats of Fusion and Solidification
    • 17.11: Heats of Vaporization and Condensation
      Natural resources for electric power generation have traditionally been waterfalls, oil, coal, or nuclear power. Research is being carried out to look for other renewable sources to run the generators. Geothermal sites (such as geysers) are being considered because of the steam they produce. Capabilities can be estimated by knowing how much steam is released in a given time at a particular site.
    • 17.12: Multi-Step Problems with Changes of State
      If you have a cube of ice, which process will take more energy—the melting of that ice cube or the conversion of the water to steam? The short answer is that more energy is needed to convert the water to steam. The long answer is really a series of questions: How do you get from one point to the other? What is the temperature of the ice? What is the mass of that ice cube? A long process is involved to take the material from the starting point to the end point.
    • 17.13: Heat of Solution
    • 17.14: Heat of Combustion
    • 17.15: Hess's Law of Heat Summation
    • 17.16: Standard Heat of Formation
    • 17.17: Calculating Heat of Reaction from Heat of Formation

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