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2: Nomenclature and physical properties of organic compounds

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    • 2.1: Hydrocarbons
      Organic compounds containing only carbons and hydrogens, i.e., hydrocarbons, their subclasses, some physical properties, IUPAC nomenclature of hydrocarbons, and reading their electrostatic potential maps to identify reactive sites in them are also described.
    • 2.2: Functional group
      Two modes of bond breaking and making in organic reactions and how to show electron movement are described. A functional group is defined and major classes of functional groups are listed.
    • 2.3: Functional groups containing sp3-hybridized heteroatom
      Functional groups containing sp3-hybridized heteroatoms, including haloalkanes, alcohol, ethers, amines, etc., describe their electrostatic potential maps and physical properties. These functional groups' primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary designations are explained.
    • 2.4: Functional groups containing sp2-hybridized heteroatom
      Aldehydes, ketones, and imines are described. Their bond polarities and how polarities affect their reactivities and physical properties, like solubility in water, boiling point, etc., are described.
    • 2.5: Functional groups containing mix of sp3- and sp2-, or sp-hybridized heteroatom
      IUPACE nomenclature of and nature of bonding and its effect on the reactivity of carboxylic acids and their derivates, including acid halides, acid anhydrides, esters, amides, and nitriles, is described. Anhydrides and esters of phosphoric acid are introduced.

    This page titled 2: Nomenclature and physical properties of organic compounds is shared under a Public Domain license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Muhammad Arif Malik.

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