# 11: Solutions

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A solution is a homogeneous mixture-a mixture of two or more substances that are so intimately mixed that the mixture behaves in many ways like a single substance. Many chemical reactions occur when the reactants are dissolved in solution. In this chapter, we will introduce concepts that are applicable to solutions and the chemical reactions that occur in them.

• 11.1: Prelude to Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture-a mixture of two or more substances that are so intimately mixed that the mixture behaves in many ways like a single substance. Many chemical reactions occur when the reactants are dissolved in solution. In this chapter, we will introduce concepts that are applicable to solutions and the chemical reactions that occur in them.
• 11.2: Definitions
Solutions are composed of a solvent (major component) and a solute (minor component). Concentration is the expression of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent and can be described by several qualitative terms. Solubility is a specific amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent. "Like dissolves like" is a useful rule for deciding if a solute will be soluble in a solvent.
• 11.3: Quantitative Units of Concentration
Quantitative units of concentration include molarity, molality, mass percentage, parts per thousand, parts per million, and parts per billion.
• 11.4: Dilutions and Concentrations
Calculate the new concentration or volume for a dilution or concentration of a solution.
• 11.5: Concentrations as Conversion Factors
Concentration units can be used as conversion factors.
• 11.6: Colligative Properties of Solutions
Colligative properties depend only on the number of dissolved particles (that is, the concentration), not their identity. Raoult's law is concerned with the vapor pressure depression of solutions. The boiling points of solutions are always higher, and the freezing points always lower, than those of the pure solvent.
• 11.7: Colligative Properties of Ionic Solutes
For ionic solutes, the calculation of colligative properties must include the fact that the solutes separate into multiple particles when they dissolve. The equations for calculating colligative properties of solutions of ionic solvents include the van't Hoff factor, i.
• 11.E: Solutions (Exercises)
These are exercises and select solutions to accompany Chapter 11 of the "Beginning Chemistry" Textmap formulated around the Ball et al. textbook.