Chapter 6 discussed the properties of gases. In this chapter, properties of liquids and solids are considered. As a review, the Table below lists some general properties of the three phases of matter.
|Gas||fills entire container||low||high|
|Liquid||fills a container from bottom to top||high||low|
- 10.1: Prelude to Solids and Liquids
- Liquids flow when a small force is placed on them, even if only very slowly. Solids may deform under a small force, but they return to their original shape when the force is relaxed. This is how glass behaves: it goes back to its original shape (unless it breaks under the applied force). Observers also point out that telescopes with glass lenses to focus light still do so even decades after manufacture—a circumstance that would not be so if the lens were liquid and flowed.
- 10.2: Intermolecular Forces
- All substances experience dispersion forces between their particles. Substances that are polar experience dipole-dipole interactions. Substances with covalent bonds between an H atom and N, O, or F atoms experience hydrogen bonding. The preferred phase of a substance depends on the strength of the intermolecular force and the energy of the particles.
- 10.3: Phase Transitions - Melting, Boiling, and Subliming
- Phase changes can occur between any two phases of matter. All phase changes occur with a simultaneous change in energy. All phase changes are isothermal.
- 10.4: Properties of Liquids
- All liquids evaporate. If volume is limited, evaporation eventually reaches a dynamic equilibrium, and a constant vapor pressure is maintained. All liquids experience surface tension, an imbalance of forces at the surface of the liquid. All liquids experience capillary action, demonstrating either capillary rise or capillary depression in the presence of other substances.
- 10.5: Solids
- Solids can be divided into amorphous solids and crystalline solids. Crystalline solids can be ionic, molecular, covalent network, or metallic.
- 10.E: Solids and Liquids (Exercises)
- These are exercises and select solutions to accompany Chapter 10 of the "Beginning Chemistry" Textmap formulated around the Ball et al. textbook.