# Chemistry of Aqueous Lead(II) Ions


If a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution is added to colorless lead(II) nitrate solution, a white precipitate of lead(II) hydroxide is produced:

$Pb^{2+} + 2OH^- (aq) \rightarrow Pb(OH)_2(s)$

If more sodium hydroxide solution is added, the precipitate redissolves, forming colorless sodium plumbate(II) solution:

$Pb(OH)_2 (s) + 2OH^- (aq) \rightarrow PbO_2^{2-} + 2H_2O$

Lead(II) chloride, a white precipitate, is formed by adding a chloride ions (in dilute hydrochloric acid) to lead(II) nitrate solution. The chemical equation is shown below:

$Pb^{2+}(aq) + 2Cl^- (aq) \rightarrow PbCl_2 (s)$

Adding excess concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolves lead(II) chloride by forming soluble, complex ions such as PbCl42-.

If you add colorless potassium iodide solution (or any other source of iodide ions in solution) to a solution of lead(II) nitrate, a bright yellow precipitate of lead(II) iodide is produced.

$Pb^{2+}(aq) + 2I^- (aq) \rightarrow PbI_2(s)$

$Pb^{2+} (aq) + SO_4^{2-} (aq) \rightarrow PbSO_4(s)$