The s-block in the periodic table of elements occupies the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, also known as groups 1 and 2. Helium is also part of the s block. The principal quantum number “n” fills the s orbital. There is a maximum of two electrons that can occupy the s orbital.
- Group 1: Hydrogen and the Alkali Metals
- Alkali metals are the chemical elements found in Group 1 of the periodic table. The alkali metals include: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. Although often listed in Group 1 due to its electronic configuration, hydrogen is not technically an alkali metal since it rarely exhibits similar behavior. The word "alkali" received its name from the Arabic word "al qali," meaning "from ashes", which since these elements react with water to form hydroxide ions.
- Group 2 Elements: The Alkaline Earth Metals
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- The elements in the group include beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), and radium (Ra).