Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

6.6: Trends for the Oxides of the Group 13 Elements

  • Page ID
    212649
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    All of the Group 13 elements form a trivalent oxide (M2O3). The chemical properties of the oxides follow the trend acidic to basic going down the Group (Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)). The physical properties are consistent with the electronegativities and covalent character in the M-O bonds. Thallium oxide is unique in that it decomposes above 100 °C to yield the thalium(I) oxide, Tl2O. The other oxides are all stable to high temperatures.

    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Properties of the Group 13 oxides.
    Oxide Color Chemical property Melting point (°C)
    B2O3 White/colorless Weak acid 450 (trigonal), 510 (tetrahedral)
    Al2O3 White/colorless Amphoteric 2072 (α)
    Ga2O3 White/colorless Amphoteric 1900 (α), 1725 (β)
    In2O3 Yellow Weakly basic 1910
    Tl2O3 Brown-black Basic, oxidizing 100 (decomposes)

    Bibliography

    • G. E. Jellison, Jr., L. W. Panek, P. J. Bray, and G. B. Rouse, Jr., J. Chem. Phys., 1977, 66, 802.

    This page titled 6.6: Trends for the Oxides of the Group 13 Elements is shared under a CC BY 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Andrew R. Barron (CNX) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.