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4: Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions

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    • 4.1: Solution Concentration and the Role of Water as a Solvent
      Solution concentrations are typically expressed as molarities and can be prepared by dissolving a known mass of solute in a solvent or diluting a stock solution. The concentration of a substance is the quantity of solute present in a given quantity of solution. Concentrations are usually expressed in terms of molarity, defined as the number of moles of solute in 1 L of solution.
    • 4.2: Writing Equations for Aqueous Ionic Reactions
    • 4.3: Precipitation Reactions
      A complete ionic equation consists of the net ionic equation and spectator ions. Predicting the solubility of ionic compounds gives insight into feasibility of reactions occuring. The chemical equation for a reaction in solution can be written in three ways. The overall chemical equation shows all the substances in their undissociated forms; the complete ionic equation shows substances in the form in which they actually exist in solution; and the net ionic equation omits all spectator ions.
    • 4.4: Acid-Base Reactions
      An acidic solution and a basic solution react together in a neutralization reaction that also forms a salt. Acid–base reactions require both an acid and a base. In Brønsted–Lowry terms, an acid is a substance that can donate a proton and a base is a substance that can accept a proton. Acids also differ in their tendency to donate a proton, a measure of their acid strength. The acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution is described quantitatively using the pH scale.
    • 4.5: Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions
      Oxidation–reduction reactions are balanced by separating the overall chemical equation into an oxidation equation and a reduction equation. In oxidation–reduction reactions, electrons are transferred from one substance or atom to another. We can balance oxidation–reduction reactions in solution using the oxidation state method, in which the overall reaction is separated into an oxidation equation and a reduction equation. The outcome of these reactions can be predicted using the activity series.
    • 4.6: Elements in Redox Reactions
    • 4.7: The Reversibility of Reactions and the Equilibrium State

    4: Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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