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9.8: Chapter Summary and Key Terms

  • Page ID
    165356
  • Chapter Summary

    In a titrimetric method of analysis, the volume of titrant that reacts stoichiometrically with a titrand provides quantitative information about the amount of analyte in a sample. The volume of titrant that corresponds to this stoichiometric reaction is called the equivalence point. Experimentally we determine the titration’s end point using an indicator that changes color near the equivalence point. Alternatively, we can locate the end point by monitoring a property of the titrand’s solution—absorbance, potential, and temperature are typical examples—that changes as the titration progresses. In either case, an accurate result requires that the end point closely match the equivalence point. Knowing the shape of a titration curve is critical to evaluating the feasibility of a titrimetric method.

    Many titrations are direct, in which the analyte participates in the titration as the titrand or the titrant. Other titration strategies are possible when a direct reaction between the analyte and titrant is not feasible. In a back titration a reagent is added in excess to a solution that contains the analyte. When the reaction between the reagent and the analyte is complete, the amount of excess reagent is determined by a titration. In a displacement titration the analyte displaces a reagent, usually from a complex, and the amount of displaced reagent is determined by an appropriate titration.

    Titrimetric methods have been developed using acid–base, complexation, oxidation–reduction, and precipitation reactions. Acid–base titrations use a strong acid or a strong base as a titrant. The most common titrant for a complexation titration is EDTA. Because of their stability against air oxidation, most redox titrations use an oxidizing agent as a titrant. Titrations with reducing agents also are possible. Precipitation titrations often involve Ag+ as either the analyte or titrant.

    Key Terms

    acid–base titration

    argentometric titration

    auxiliary oxidizing agent

    buret

    direct titration

    equivalence point

    Gran plot

    Kjeldahl analysis

    Mohr method

    redox indicator

    symmetric equivalence point

    titrant

    titrimetry

    acidity

    asymmetric equivalence point

    auxiliary reducing agent

    complexation titration

    displacement titration

    Fajans method

    indicator

    leveling

    potentiometric titration

    redox titration

    thermometric titration

    titration curve

    Volhard method

    alkalinity

    auxiliary complexing agent

    back titration

    conditional formation constant

    end point

    formal potential

    Jones reductor

    metallochromic indicator

    precipitation titration

    spectrophotometric titration

    titrand

    titration error

    Walden reductor

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