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Chemistry LibreTexts

Quantum Simulations

Thumbnail: A wavefunction for a single electron in a 5d atomic orbital of a hydrogen atom. The solid body shows the places where the electron's probability density is above a certain value (here 0.02 nm−3): this is calculated from the probability amplitude. The hue on the colored surface shows the complex phase of the wave function. (CC BY-SA 3.0; Saumitra R Geek3).

Peter H. Bird (Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Concordia University, Montreal)