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Chemistry LibreTexts

4.E: Covalent Bonding and Simple Molecular Compounds (Exercises)

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  • Page ID
    41742
    1. An atomic mass unit equals 1.661 × 10−24 g. What is the mass in grams of each molecule of (a) H2S (b) N2O4 (c) ICl3 (d) NCl3?

    2. An atomic mass unit equals 1.661 × 10−24 g. What is the mass in grams of (a) O2F2 (b) CCl4 (c) C6H6 (d) SO3?

    3. An atomic mass unit equals 1.661 × 10−24 g. What is the mass in grams of 5.00 × 1022 molecules of C9H8O4?

    4. An atomic mass unit equals 1.661 × 10−24 g. What is the mass in grams of 1.885 × 1020 molecules of C27H46O?

    5. Acetic acid has the following structure:

      5a.jpg

      This molecule can lose a hydrogen ion (H+) and the resulting anion can combine with other cations, such as Na+:

      5b.jpg

      Name this ionic compound.

    6. Formic acid (HCOOH) loses a hydrogen ion to make the formate ion (HCOO). Write the formula for each ionic compound: potassium formate, calcium formate, and ferric formate.

    7. Cyanogen has the formula C2N2. Propose a bonding scheme that gives each atom the correct number of covalent bonds. (Hint: the two carbon atoms are in the center of a linear molecule.)

    8. The molecular formula C3H6 represents not only propene, a compound with a carbon–carbon double bond, but also a molecule that has all single bonds. Draw the molecule with formula C3H6 that has all single bonds.

    9. How many carbon–carbon single bonds, linked together, are needed to make a carbon chain that is 1.000 cm long?

    10. How many carbon–carbon double bonds, linked together, are needed to make a carbon chain that is 1.000 cm long?

    11. In addition to themselves, what other atoms can carbon atoms bond with and make covalent bonds that are nonpolar (or as nonpolar as possible)?

    12. What is the greatest possible electronegativity difference between any two atoms? Use Figure 4.4 to find the answer.

    13. Acetaminophen, a popular painkiller, has the following structure:

      13.jpg

      Name the recognizable functional groups in this molecule. Do you think there are other groups of atoms in this molecule that might qualify as functional groups?

    14. Glutamic acid is the parent compound of monosodium glutamate (known as MSG), which is used as a flavor enhancer. Glutamic acid has the following structure:

      14.jpg

      Name the functional groups you recognize in this molecule. Do you think there are other groups of atoms in this molecule that might qualify as functional groups?

    Answers

    1. 1a: 5.75 × 10−23 g; 1b: 1.53 × 10−22 g; 1c: 3.88 × 10−22 g; 1d: 6.06 × 10−23 g

     
    1. 14.96 g

     
    1. sodium acetate

     
    1. N≡C–C≡N

     
    1. 6.49 × 107 bonds

     
    1. Hydrogen atoms make relatively nonpolar bonds with carbon atoms.

     
    1. alcohol; the N–H group, the ring with double bonds, and the C=O are also likely functional groups.