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Chemistry LibreTexts

2.4.1: Mono and Disaccharides (Jakubowski)

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  • Learning Objectives

    • define a sugar
    • apply knowledge about reactions at carbonyl carbons of aldehyde and ketones in the formation of hemiacetals/hemiketals and acetals/ketals from organic chemistry to draw mechanics showing cyclization of aldoses and ketoses and (hemiacetal/hemiketal formation) and of polymerization of aldoses and ketones to form dissacharide and polysaccharide (acetal/ketals).
    • draw open chain, Haworth (planar), and puckered (nonplanar) representations of 6 member cyclic sugars
    • know the names of common trioses, ribose (5C) and hexoses and draw open chain, Haworth, and puckered representations of each
    • differentiate between enantiomers, diastereomers and anomers of the hexoses
    • explain the difference between reducing and nonreducing dissacharides
    • draw the structure and name common sugar derivatives of the hexoses

    The link below is an extraordinary and free resource on glycobiology. It defines the word "glycan" as a "generic term for any sugar or assembly of sugars, in free form or attached to another molecule" and "is used interchangeably ... with saccharide or carbohydrate."

    • Essentials of Glycobiology, 2nd edition, is available online.

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