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7: Chemical Bonding

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    • 7.1: Prelude to Chemical Bonds
      Diamond is the hardest natural material known on Earth. Yet diamond is just pure carbon. What is special about this element that makes diamond so hard? Bonds. Chemical bonds.
    • 7.2: Lewis Electron Dot Diagrams
      Lewis electron dot diagrams use dots to represent valence electrons around an atomic symbol. Lewis electron dot diagrams for ions have less (for cations) or more (for anions) dots than the corresponding atom.
    • 7.3: Covalent Bonds
      Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electrons. Lewis electron dot diagrams can be drawn to illustrate covalent bond formation. Double bonds or triple bonds between atoms may be necessary to properly illustrate the bonding in some molecules.
    • 7.4: Molecular Shapes
      The approximate shape of a molecule can be predicted from the number of electron groups and the number of surrounding atoms.
    • 7.5: Electronegativity and Polarity - Why Oil and Water Don’t Mix
      Covalent bonds can be nonpolar or polar, depending on the electronegativities of the atoms involved. Covalent bonds can be broken if energy is added to a molecule. The formation of covalent bonds is accompanied by energy given off. Covalent bond energies can be used to estimate the enthalpy changes of chemical reactions.
    • 7.6: Interactions between Molecules
      All substances experience dispersion forces between their particles. Substances that are polar experience dipole-dipole interactions. Substances with covalent bonds between an H atom and N, O, or F atoms experience hydrogen bonding. The preferred phase of a substance depends on the strength of the intermolecular force and the energy of the particles.
    • 7.7: Water - A Remarkable Molecule
      Water has several properties that make it a unique substance among substances. It is an excellent solvent; it dissolves many other substances and allows those substances to react when in solution. In fact, water is sometimes called the universal solvent because of this ability. Water has unusually high melting and boiling points. Unlike most substances, the solid form of water is less dense than its liquid form, which allows ice to float on water.

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