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4: Periodic Trends in Elements and Compounds

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    • 4.1: Development of the Periodic Table
      The periodic table arranges the elements according to their electron configurations, such that elements in the same column have the same valence electron configurations. Periodic variations in size and chemical properties are important factors in dictating the types of chemical reactions the elements undergo and the kinds of chemical compounds they form. The modern periodic table was based on empirical correlations of properties such as atomic mass.
    • 4.2: Electronic Structure
      The calculation of orbital energies in atoms or ions with more than one electron (multielectron atoms or ions) is complicated by repulsive interactions between the electrons. The concept of electron shielding, in which intervening electrons act to reduce the positive nuclear charge experienced by an electron, allows the use of hydrogen-like orbitals and an effective nuclear charge to describe electron distributions in more complex atoms or ions.
    • 4.3: Sizes of Atoms and Ions
      Ionic radii share the same vertical trend as atomic radii, but the horizontal trends differ due to differences in ionic charges. A variety of methods have been established to measure the size of a single atom or ion. The covalent atomic radius (rcov) is half the internuclear distance in a molecule with two identical atoms bonded to each other, whereas the metallic atomic radius (rmet) is defined as half the distance between the nuclei of two adjacent atoms in a metallic element.
    • 4.4: Ionization Energy
    • 4.5: Electron Affinity
    • 4.6: Electronegativity
      Bond polarity and ionic character increase with an increasing difference in electronegativity. The electronegativity (χ) of an element is the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical compound and increases diagonally from the lower left of the periodic table to the upper right. The Pauling electronegativity scale is based on measurements of the strengths of covalent bonds between different atoms, whereas the Mulliken electronegativity of an element is the average

    4: Periodic Trends in Elements and Compounds is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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