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2: Arrow Pushing

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    • 2.1: Polar Covalent Bonds - Electronegativity
      Because the tendency of an element to gain or lose electrons is so important in determining its chemistry, various methods have been developed to quantitatively describe this tendency. The most important method uses a measurement called electronegativity, defined as the relative ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a chemical compound.
    • 2.2: Polar Covalent Bonds - Dipole Moments
      Mathematically, dipole moments are vectors; they possess both a magnitude and a direction. The dipole moment of a molecule is therefore the vector sum of the dipole moments of the individual bonds in the molecule. If the individual bond dipole moments cancel one another, there is no net dipole moment.
    • 2.3: Kinds of Organic Reactions
    • 2.4: Using Curved Arrows in Polar Reaction Mechanisms
    • 2.5: An Example of a Polar Reaction - Addition of HBr to Ethylene
      This page looks at the reaction of the carbon-carbon double bond in alkenes such as ethene with hydrogen halides such as hydrogen chloride and hydrogen bromide. Symmetrical alkenes (like ethene or but-2-ene) are dealt with first. These are alkenes where identical groups are attached to each end of the carbon-carbon double bond.
    • 2.6: Resonance
      Resonance structures are a set of two or more Lewis Structures that collectively describe the electronic bonding a single polyatomic species including fractional bonds and fractional charges. Resonance structure are capable of describing delocalized electrons that cannot be expressed by a single Lewis formula with an integer number of covalent bonds.
    • 2.7: Rules for Resonance Forms
      The above resonance structures show that the electrons are delocalized within the molecule and through this process the molecule gains extra stability. Ozone with both of its opposite formal charges creates a neutral molecule and through resonance it is a stable molecule. The extra electron that created the negative charge on one terminal oxygen can be delocalized by resonance through the other terminal oxygen.
    • 2.8: Drawing Resonance Forms
      Resonance structures are used when one Lewis structure for a single molecule cannot fully describe the bonding that takes place between neighboring atoms relative to the empirical data for the actual bond lengths between those atoms. The net sum of valid resonance structures is defined as a resonance hybrid, which represents the overall delocalization of electrons within the molecule. A molecule that has several resonance structures is more stable than one with fewer.

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