All chemical changes are accompanied by the absorption or release of heat. The intimate connection between matter and energy has been a source of wonder and speculation from the most primitive times; it is no accident that fire was considered one of the four basic elements (along with earth, air, and water) as early as the fifth century BCE. In this unit we will review some of the fundamental concepts of energy and heat and the relation between them. We will begin the study of thermodynamics, which treats the energetic aspects of change in general, and we will finally apply this specifically to chemical change. Our purpose will be to provide you with the tools to predict the energy changes associated with chemical processes. This will build the groundwork for a more ambitious goal: to predict the direction and extent of change itself.
- 5.1: Spontaneous Processes
- Chemical and physical processes have a natural tendency to occur in one direction under certain conditions. A spontaneous process occurs without the need for a continual input of energy from some external source, while a nonspontaneous process requires such. Systems undergoing a spontaneous process may or may not experience a gain or loss of energy, but they will experience a change in the way matter and/or energy is distributed within the system.
- 5.2: Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Entropy (S) is a state function whose value increases with an increase in the number of available microstates.For a given system, the greater the number of microstates, the higher the entropy. During a spontaneous process, the entropy of the universe increases.
- 5.3: The Molecular Interpretation of Entropy (3rd Law of Thermodynamics)
- These forms of motion are ways in which the molecule can store energy. The greater the molecular motion of a system, the greater the number of possible microstates and the higher the entropy. A perfectly ordered system with only a single microstate available to it would have an entropy of zero. The only system that meets this criterion is a perfect crystal at a temperature of absolute zero (0 K), in which each component atom, molecule, or ion is fixed in place within a perfect crystal lattice.
- 5.5: Photosynthesis
- Photosynthesis involves the combination of carbon dioxide and water under the influence of sunlight to form organic compounds.
- 5.E: Chemical Thermodynamics (Practice Problems with Answers)
- These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Chemistry: The Central Science" by Brown et al.
Thumbnail: Dancing Flames of burning charcoal in the dark (CC BY-SA 3.0; Oscar via Wikipedia).