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Chemistry LibreTexts

25: Metals and Metallurgy

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    • 25.1: Vanadium- A Problem and an Opportunity
      Vanadium takes its name from the Scandinavian goddess Vanadis and was discovered in 1801 by Andrés Manuel del Rio. It was isolated in 1867 by Henry Roscoe as a silvery-white metal that is somewhat heavier than aluminum but lighter than iron. It has excellent corrosion resistance at room temperature. Vanadium has an unusually large number of stable oxidation states (+2, +3, +4, +5) each of which is characterized by a unique color in solution.
    • 25.2: The General Properties and Natural Distribution of Metals
      The Earth formed from the same cloud of matter that formed the Sun, but the planets acquired different compositions during the formation and evolution of the solar system. In turn, the natural history of the Earth caused parts of this planet to have differing concentrations of the elements.
    • 25.3: Metallurgical Processes
      This page looks at the various factors which influence the choice of method for extracting metals from their ores, including reduction by carbon, reduction by a reactive metal (like sodium or magnesium), and by electrolysis. Details for the extraction of aluminum, copper, iron and titanium are given in separate pages in this section.
    • 25.4: Metal Structures and Alloys
      An alloy is a mixture of metals that has bulk metallic properties different from those of its constituent elements. Alloys can be formed by substituting one metal atom for another of similar size in the lattice (substitutional alloys), by inserting smaller atoms into holes in the metal lattice (interstitial alloys), or by a combination of both. Although the elemental composition of most alloys can vary over wide ranges, certain metals combine in only fixed proportions to form intermetallics.
    • 25.5: Sources, Properties, and Products of Some of the 3d Transition Metals
      Transition metals are characterized by the existence of multiple oxidation states separated by a single electron. Most transition-metal compounds are paramagnetic, whereas virtually all compounds of the p-block elements are diamagnetic.

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