# 9: Periodic Properties of the Elements

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• 9.1: Nerve Signal Transmission
Electric potentials in neurons and other cells are created by ionic concentration differences across semipermeable membranes. Stimuli change the permeability and create action potentials that propagate along neurons.
• 9.2: The Development of the Periodic Table
The periodic table is used as a predictive tool that arranges of the elements in order of increasing atomic number. Elements that exhibit similar chemistry appear in vertical columns called groups (numbered 1–18 from left to right); the seven horizontal rows are called periods. The elements can be broadly divided into metals, nonmetals, and semimetals. Semimetals exhibit properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals.
• 9.3: Electron Configurations- How Electrons Occupy Orbitals
The relative energy of the subshells determine the order in which atomic orbitals are filled. Electron configurations and orbital diagrams can be determined by applying the Pauli exclusion principle (no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers) and Hund’s rule (whenever possible, electrons retain unpaired spins in degenerate orbitals). Electrons in the outermost orbitals, called valence electrons, are responsible for most of the chemical behavior of elements.
• 9.4: Electron Configurations, Valence Electrons, and the Periodic Table
Electron configurations allow us to understand many periodic trends. Covalent radius increases as we move down a group because the n level (orbital size) increases. Covalent radius mostly decreases as we move left to right across a period because the effective nuclear charge experienced by the electrons increases, and the electrons are pulled in tighter to the nucleus. Anionic radii are larger than the parent atom, while cationic radii are smaller.
• 9.5: The Explanatory Power of the Quantum-Mechanical Model
• 9.6: Periodic Trends in the Size of Atoms and Effective Nuclear Charge
Ionic radii share the same vertical trend as atomic radii, but the horizontal trends differ due to differences in ionic charges. A variety of methods have been established to measure the size of a single atom or ion.  The calculation of orbital energies in atoms or ions with more than one electron (multielectron atoms or ions) is complicated by repulsive interactions between the electrons. The concept of electron shielding and an effective nuclear charge are introduced.
• 9.7: Ions- Configurations, Magnetic Properties, Radii, and Ionization Energy
Generally, the first ionization energy and electronegativity values increase diagonally from the lower left of the periodic table to the upper right, and electron affinities become more negative across a row. The energy required to remove successive electrons from an atom increases steadily, with a substantial increase occurring with the removal of an electron from a filled inner shell.
• 9.8: Electron Affinities and Metallic Character
The electron affinity (EA) of an element is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom to give an anion. In general, elements with the most negative electron affinities (the highest affinity for an added electron) are those with the smallest size and highest ionization energies and are located in the upper right corner of the periodic table.
• 9.9: Examples of Periodic Chemical Behavior
The elements within the same group of the periodic table tend to exhibit similar physical and chemical properties. Four major factors affect reactivity of metals: nuclear charge, atomic radius, shielding effect and sublevel arrangement (of electrons).  The noble gases are characterized by their high ionization energies and low electron affinities. Potent oxidants are needed to oxidize the noble gases to form compounds. The noble gases have a closed-shell valence electron configuration. The ioniz
• 9.E: Periodic Properties of the Elements (Exercises)

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