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    This laboratory manual is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License ("Public License"). 


    The full text of the license is located here: 



    Disclaimer:  These experiments are intended to be used with experienced supervision in a laboratory classroom setting.  Los Medanos College and the Contra Costa Community College District assumes no responsibility or liability from the use or misuse of these experimental procedures either in or out of the laboratory classroom. 


    In other words: if you think it is a good idea to go in your back yard (or anywhere else) and mix some random chemicals, we inform you firmly that it is a bad idea.  Do not sue us if or when you get hurt.  We warned you.   


    Several sources were used for the experiments in this laboratory manual: 


    Permission was granted from the Laney College Department of Chemistry to adapt some of their experiments from their 2018 Chemistry 1A, 30A and 30B online lab manuals.  Experiments 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 18, 19, and 20 were adapted for use from Chemistry 1A.  Experiment 3 from Chemistry 30A and Experiments 3, 9, and 11 from Chemistry 30B were also adapted.   


    Permission was granted from the Santa Monica College physical science department to adapt their experiments from their Chemistry 9 and Chemistry 10 laboratory manuals.    The Chemistry 9 experiments “Double Displacement Reactions”; “Flame Tests and Atomic Spectra”, “Acids, Bases and pH”, “Making Soap”; “Lewis Structures and Molecular Shapes”; and “Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions” were adapted for use.  The Chemistry 10 experiment “Experiment 12: Equilibrium and LeChatelier’s Principle” was also adapted for use.    


    The 2018-2020 staff of student stockroom workers were of great assistance in testing out and improving these experiments.  Listed in alphabetical order they are Most Akter, Jacqueline Abad Santos, Elijah Avery, Shanice Blake, Estrella Casteneda, Diane Clark, Ashley Delatorre, Anthony Early, Abbey Ishola, Andreana Gomez, Kole Holland, Stephen Kohl, Brenda Kwan, Neha Narayan, Nicolette Moss, Gabriana La, Emmie Reed, Tennile Richardson, Stone Silva, Glen Stafford, Abdiel Torres, and Jacqueline Villalobos.    


    Los Medanos faculty and staff who assisted this effort include Melinda Capes, Jason Chan, Dennis Gravert, Edward Haven, Julie Hubbard, Scott Hubbard, George Perdrizet, Anthony Perri, Nancy Peters, Poupak Khazaeli Parsa, Deborah Scott, Girlie Sison and Paul West.   


    Effort was made to acknowledge all contributors to this document.  If anyone was inadvertently omitted, please contact LMC and a correction will be made.   


    Funding for this effort was provided by the California Community College Chancellor's Office Zero Textbook Cost Degree Grant 17-085. 

    CCLicense is shared under a CC BY license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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