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Net Ionic Equations

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    In this experiment, you will be learning about what net ionic equations are and how they are going to be useful in understanding the chemistry that occurs during qualitative analysis. You will perform some exercises that involve net ionic equations in this lab. Also, you will be introduced to the concept of solubility of ionic compounds as well as the behavior of bench chemicals in water.

    Solubility Rules

    1. All alkali metal (Group 1A) compounds are soluble.

    2. All ammonium (NH+ 4) compounds are soluble.

    3. All compounds containing nitrate (NO3 ), chlorate (ClO3 ), and perchlorate (ClO4 ) are soluble.

    4. Most hydroxides (OH ) are insoluble. The exceptions are the alkali metal hydroxides and barium hydroxide [Ba(OH)2], which is slightly soluble.

    5. Most compounds containing chlorides (Cl ), bromides (Br ), or iodides (I ) are soluble. The exceptions are those containing Ag+ , Hg2 2+, and Pb2+ .

    6. All carbonates (CO3 2–), oxalates (C2O4 2–), and phosphates (PO4 3–), are insoluble; the exceptions are those of alkali metals and the ammonium ion.

    7. All sulfides (S2–) are insoluble except those of the alkali metals (Group 1A), alkaline earth metals (Group 2A) and ammonium ion (NH4 + ). NOTE: In the presence of a basic solution of S2–, Al3+ and Cr3+ form Al(OH)3M(s) and Cr(OH)3(s), respectively. Fe3+ in a basic solution of S2– is reduced to FeS(s).

    8. Most sulfates (SO4 2–) are soluble. Calcium sulfate (CaSO4) and silver sulfate (Ag2SO4) are slightly soluble. Barium sulfate (BaSO4), mercury(II) sulfate (HgSO4), and lead sulfate (PbSO4) are insoluble.

    Helpful Links

    Read through your manual for a guided example in Net Ionic Equation experiment section.

    Here are some links to useful websites where you can learn and practice more about writing net ionic equations.

    1. Complete Ionic and Net Ionic Equations

    2. Multiple Choice Questions - UMASS

    3.Multiple Choice Questions 2 - ChemWeb


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