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6: d-Block Metal Chemistry- Coordination Compounds

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    • 6.1: Crystal Field Theory
      Crystal field theory (CFT) describes the breaking of orbital degeneracy in transition metal complexes due to the presence of ligands. CFT qualitatively describes the strength of the metal-ligand bonds. Based on the strength of the metal-ligand bonds, the energy of the system is altered. This may lead to a change in magnetic properties as well as color. This theory was developed by Hans Bethe and John Hasbrouck van Vleck.
    • 6.2: Additional Resources- High and Low Spin
    • 6.3: Ligand Field Theory Fundamentals
      Ligand Field Theory can be considered an extension of Crystal Field Theory such that all levels of covalent interactions can be incorporated into the model. Treatment of the bonding in LFT is generally done using Molecular Orbital Theory.
    • 6.4: Spectrochemical Series
      The spectrochemical series ranks ligands according the energy difference Δo between the t2g and eg orbitals in their octahedral complexes. This energy difference is measured in the spectral transition between these levels, which often lies in the visible part of the spectrum and is responsible for the colors of complexes with partially filled d-orbitals. Ligands that produce a large splitting are called strong field ligands, and those that produce a small splitting are called weak field ligands.
    • 6.5: Jahn-Teller Distortions
      The Jahn-Teller effect is a geometric distortion of a non-linear molecular system that reduces its symmetry and energy. This distortion is typically observed among octahedral complexes where the two axial bonds can be shorter or longer than those of the equatorial bonds. This effect can also be observed in tetrahedral compounds. This effect is dependent on the electronic state of the system.
    • 6.6: Electronic Spectroscopy- Interpretation
      Electronic Spectroscopy relies on the quantized nature of energy states. Given enough energy, an electron can be excited from its initial ground state or initial excited state (hot band) and briefly exist in a higher energy excited state. Electronic transitions involve exciting an electron from one principle quantum state to another. Without incentive, an electron will not transition to a higher level. Only by absorbing energy, can an electron be excited.

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