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5: d-Block Metal Chemistry- General Considerations

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    • 5.1: Oxidation States of Transition Metals
      The oxidation state of an element is related to the number of electrons that an atom loses, gains, or appears to use when joining with another atom in compounds. It also determines the ability of an atom to oxidize (to lose electrons) or to reduce (to gain electrons) other atoms or species. Almost all of the transition metals have multiple potential oxidation states.
    • 5.2: General Properties of Transition Metals
      Transition metals are defined as those elements that have (or readily form) partially filled d orbitals. The d-block elements in groups 3–11 are transition elements. The f-block elements, also called inner transition metals (the lanthanides and actinides), also meet this criterion because the d orbital is partially occupied before the f orbitals. The d orbitals fill with the copper family (group 11); for this reason, group 12 are technically not transition elements.
    • 5.3: Introduction to Transition Metals I
    • 5.4: Introduction to Transition Metals II
      This page explains what a transition metal is in terms of its electronic structure, and then goes on to look at the general features of transition metal chemistry. These include variable oxidation state (oxidation number), complex ion formation, coloured ions, and catalytic activity.
    • 5.5: Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds
      A metal complex consists of a central metal atom or ion that is bonded to one or more ligands, which are ions or molecules that contain one or more pairs of electrons that can be shared with the metal. Metal complexes can be neutral, positively charged, or negatively charged. Electrically charged metal complexes are sometimes called complex ions. A coordination compound contains one or more metal complexes.
    • 5.6: Coordination Numbers and Structures
    • 5.7: Structural Isomers- Ionization Isomerism in Transition Metal Complexes
      Ionization isomers are identical except for a ligand has exchanging places with an anion or neutral molecule that was originally outside the coordination complex. The central ion and the other ligands are identical. For example, an octahedral isomer will have five ligands that are identical, but the sixth will differ. The non-matching ligand in one compound will be outside of the coordination sphere of the other compound.
    • 5.8: Structural Isomers- Coordination Isomerism in Transition Metal Complexes
      Coordination isomerism occurs compounds containing complex anionic and cationic parts can be thought of as occurring by interchange of some ligands from the cationic part to the anionic part. Hence, there are two complex compounds bound together, one with a negative charge and the other with a positive charge. In coordination isomers, the anion and cation complexes of a coordination compound exchange one or more ligands.
    • 5.9: Structural Isomers- Linkage Isomerism in Transition Metal Complexes
      Linkage isomerism occurs with ambidentate ligands that are capable of coordinating in more than one way. The best known cases involve the monodentate ligands: SCN- / NCS- and NO2- / ONO-. The only difference is what atoms the molecular ligands use to attach to the central ion.
    • 5.10: Stereoisomers- Geometric Isomers in Transition Metal Complexes
      The existence of coordination compounds with the same formula but different arrangements of the ligands was crucial in the development of coordination chemistry. Two or more compounds with the same formula but different arrangements of the atoms are called isomers. Because isomers usually have different physical and chemical properties, it is important to know which isomer we are dealing with if more than one isomer is possible.
    • 5.11: Stereoisomers- Geometric Isomers in Transition Metal Complexes II
      Geometric Isomers are isomers that differ in the arrangement of the ligands around the metal or the central atom. In other words, these isomers differ from each other based on where the ligands are placed in the coordinate compound. This will be much easier to understand as examples will be considered. There are 2 main types of geometric isomers:
    • 5.12: Optical Isomers in Inorganic Complexes
      Optical isomers are related as non-superimposable mirror images and differ in the direction with which they rotate plane-polarised light. These isomers are referred to as enantiomers or enantiomorphs of each other and their non-superimposable structures are described as being asymmetric.

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