# 10: Solids, Liquids, and Gases, Solutions and energy


Solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice because it converts from a solid to a gas directly, without going through the liquid phase, in a process called sublimation. Thus, there is no messy liquid phase to worry about. Although it is a novelty, dry ice has some potential dangers. Because it is so cold, it can freeze living tissues very quickly, so people handling dry ice should wear special protective gloves.

We normally experience carbon dioxide ($$\ce{CO2}$$) as a gas, but if it were cooled down to about −78°C, it would become a solid. The everyday term for solid carbon dioxide is dry ice.

Why “dry” ice? Solid carbon dioxide is called dry ice because it converts from a solid to a gas directly, without going through the liquid phase, in a process called sublimation. Thus, there is no messy liquid phase to worry about. Although it is a novelty, dry ice has some potential dangers. Because it is so cold, it can freeze living tissues very quickly, so people handling dry ice should wear special protective gloves. The cold carbon dioxide gas is also heavier than air (because it is cold and more dense), so people in the presence of dry ice should be in a well-ventilated area.

Dry ice has several common uses. Because it is so cold, it is used as a refrigerant to keep other things cold or frozen (e.g., meats or ice cream). In the medical field, dry ice is used to preserve medical specimens, blood products, and drugs. It also has dermatological applications (e.g., freezing off warts). Organs for transplant are kept cool with dry ice until the recipient of the new organ is ready for surgery. In this respect, carbon dioxide is much like water—more than one phase of the same substance has significant uses in the real world.

• 10.1: Intermolecular Forces
All substances experience dispersion forces between their particles. Substances that are polar experience dipole-dipole interactions. Substances with covalent bonds between an H atom and N, O, or F atoms experience hydrogen bonding. The preferred phase of a substance depends on the strength of the intermolecular force and the energy of the particles.
• 10.2: Solubility and Pollution
• 10.3: Properties of Liquids
All liquids evaporate. If volume is limited, evaporation eventually reaches a dynamic equilibrium, and a constant vapor pressure is maintained. All liquids experience surface tension, an imbalance of forces at the surface of the liquid. All liquids experience capillary action, demonstrating either capillary rise or capillary depression in the presence of other substances.
• 10.4: Solids
Solids can be divided into amorphous solids and crystalline solids. Crystalline solids can be ionic, molecular, covalent network, or metallic.
• 10.5: Prelude to Gases
• 10.6: Prelude to Solutions
A solution is a homogeneous mixture-a mixture of two or more substances that are so intimately mixed that the mixture behaves in many ways like a single substance. Many chemical reactions occur when the reactants are dissolved in solution. In this chapter, we will introduce concepts that are applicable to solutions and the chemical reactions that occur in them.
• 10.7: Introduction to energy
• 10.S: Liquids and Intermolecular Forces (Summary)
This is the summary Module for the chapter "Liquids and Intermolecular Forces" in the Brown et al. General Chemistry Textmap.

10: Solids, Liquids, and Gases, Solutions and energy is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.