Control of glycolysis occurs at three enzymatic points:
Consider the regulation of Hexokinase. This enzyme is allosterically inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). The enzyme phosphofructokinase (PFK) is inhibited by ATP and activated by AMP and fructose-2,6- bisphosphate (F2,6BP, a molecule that regulates glycolysis and gluconeogenesis). Pyruvate kinase is allosterically inhibited by ATP and activated by fructose-1,6- bisphosphate (F1,6BP) and AMP.
Figure 9.1.3: Glycolysis Regulation
Glycolysis is regulated in a reciprocal fashion compared to its corresponding anabolic pathway, gluconeogenesis. Reciprocal regulation occurs when the same molecule or treatment (phosphorylation, for example) has opposite effects on catabolic and anabolic pathways. Reciprocal regulation is important when anabolic and corresponding catabolic pathways are occurring in the same cellular location.