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Chemistry LibreTexts

Ideal Solutions

  • Page ID
    1597
  • The concept of an ideal solution is fundamental to chemical thermodynamics and its applications, such as the use of colligative properties. An ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution in which the enthalpy of solution (\(\Delta{H_{solution}} = 0\)) is zero; with the closer to zero the enthalpy of solution, the more "ideal" the behavior of the solution becomes. Since the enthalpy of mixing (solution) is zero, the change in Gibbs energy on mixing is determined solely by the entropy of mixing (\(\Delta{S_{solution}}\)).

    • Raoult's Law
      Raoult's law states that the vapor pressure of a solvent above a solution is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent at the same temperature scaled by the mole fraction of the solvent present. At any given temperature for a particular solid or liquid, there is a pressure at which the vapor formed above the substance is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid or solid form.  At equilibrium, the rate at which the solid or liquid evaporates is equal to the rate that the gas is condensing.
    • Henry's Law
      Henry's law is one of the gas laws formulated by William Henry in 1803 and states: "At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid." An equivalent way of stating the law is that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.