Molecular orbitals possess specific topology, symmetry, and energy-level patterns.
- 5.1: Orbital Interaction Topology
- The pattern of molecular orbital energies can often be 'guessed' by using qualitative information about the energies, overlaps, directions, and shapes of the atomic orbitals that comprise the molecular orbitals.
- 5.2: Orbital Symmetry
- Symmetry provides additional quantum numbers or labels to use in describing the molecular orbitals. Each such quantum number further sub-divides the collection of all molecular orbitals into sets that have vanishing Hamiltonian matrix elements among members belonging to different sets.
- 5.3: Linear Molecules
- Linear molecules belong to the axial rotation group. Their symmetry is intermediate in complexity between nonlinear molecules and atoms.
- 5.4: Atoms
- Atoms belong to the full rotation symmetry group; this makes their symmetry analysis the most complex to treat.