Skip to main content
Chemistry LibreTexts

Racemic Mixtures

  • Page ID
  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    ( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\)

    \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\)

    \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\)

    \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}}      % arrow\)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}} \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \)

    \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)

    What do you notice about these three pictures? Count the number of left gloves and right gloves.


    6 left and 6 right gloves, correct?

    What about this one:

    I count 8 right gloves, 4 left gloves. So there’s a slight excess of right gloves here.

    Finally, this figure:

    ONLY right hand gloves here. 12 right gloves, zero left gloves.

    Application to organic chemistry?

    Gloves are chiral objects. That is, they lack an internal plane of symmetry. Left gloves and right gloves are mirror images of each other, but they can’t be superimposed. In chemistry, there’s a word we have to describe a pair of non-superimposable mirror images – they’re called enantiomers.

    Tying it back to the drawings, we can have three types of situations.

    1. Racemic Mixture: In the first drawing, we have an equal number of left and right gloves (i.e. enantiomers). This is called a racemic mixture of enantiomers.
    2. Enantiomeric excess: In the second drawing, we have an excess of right gloves compared to left gloves. In a situtation like this we can say we have an “enantiomeric excess” of gloves, or alternatively, the mixture is “enantioenriched” in the right-hand glove. [We can also calculate the "excess" here: the mixture is 66% right and 33% left - so we have a 33% "excess" of the right-hand enantiomer].
    3. Enantiomeric pure: In the third drawing, we have only right-hand gloves. This is said to be an “enantiomerically pure” mixture of gloves, since we have only one enantiomer present.
    To tie it back to chemistry, let’s say we have a solution of a chiral molecule, like 2-butanol, which can exist as either the (R)-enantiomer or the (S)-enantiomer.
    • A solution containing equal amounts of (R)-2-butanol and (S)-2-butanol is a racemic mixture.
    • A solution containing an excess of either the (R)-enantiomer or the (S)-enantiomer would be enantioenriched.
    • A solution containing only the (R)-enantiomer or the (S)-enantiomer will be enantiomerically pure.


    James Ashenhurst (

    • A big thanks to Agnieszka at IlluScientia for the glove drawings.

    Racemic Mixtures is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

    • Was this article helpful?