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Functional groups A

  • Page ID
    22646
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    In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules arranged in a specific manner. The following tables list common functional groups arranged by heteroatom. The symbols R, R', R'' and R''' usually denote a hydrocarbon chain or a hydrogen but can sometimes be any group of atoms. The symbol X denotes a halide such as F, Br, Cl or I.

    Carbon based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Alkane Alkyl RH Alkane.png alkyl- -ane Butane.png
    Butane
    Alkene Alkenyl R2C=CR2 Alkene.png alkenyl- -ene Butene.png
    (E)-But-2-ene
    Alkyne Alkynyl RC≡CR' Alkyne.png alkynyl- -yne Butyne.png
    But-2-yne
    Allene Allenyl R2C=C=CR2 Allene.png allenyl- -diene Pentadiene.png
    Penta-2,3-diene
    Cumulene Cumulenyl R2C=C=C=CR2 Cumulene.png cumulenyl- -triene Hexa234triene.png
    Hexa-2,3,4-triene
    Benzene derivative Phenyl RC6H5
    RPh
    Phenyl.png phenyl- -benzene Propylbenzene.png
    Propylbenzene
    (Phenylpropane)
    Toluene derivative Benzyl RCH2C6H5
    RBn
    Benzyl.png benzyl- -toluene Benzylbromide.png
    Benzylbromide
    (α-bromotoluene)
    Halide Halo RX Halide.png halo- -halide Butyliodide.png
    Butyl iodide
    (1-Iodobutane)

    Oxygen based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Ether Ether ROR' Ether.png alkoxy- -ether Diethylether.png
    Diethyl ether
    (Ethoxyethane)
    Alcohol Hydroxyl ROH Alcohol.png hydroxy- -ol Butan-1-ol.png
    n-Butanol
    (Butan-1-ol)
    Aldehyde Carbonyl RCHO Aldehyde.png aldo- -al Butyraldehyde.png
    Butyraldehyde
    (Butanal)
    Ketone Carbonyl RCOR' Ketone.png keto- -one Butan-2-one.png
    2-Butanone
    (Methyl ethyl ketone)
    Carboxylic Acid Carboxyl RCO2H Carboxylic acid.png carboxy- -oic acid Butanoic acid.png
    Butanoic acid
    (Butyric acid)
    Acyl halide Haloformyl RCOX Acyl halide.png haloformyl- -oyl halide Butanoyl bromide.png
    Butanoyl bromide
    (Butyryl bromide)
    Ester Ester RCO2R' Ester.png / -(o)ate Ethyl acetate.png
    Ethyl acetate
    (Ethyl ethanoate)
    Lactone Lactone / Lactone.png / -lactone Butyrolactone.png
    γ-Butyrolactone
    Peroxy acid Peracid RCO3H Peroxyacid.png per-
    peroxy-
    -peroxoic acid Peracetic acid.png
    Peracetic acid
    Peroxyacetic acid
    (Ethaneperoxoic acid)
    Anhydride Anhydride RCOOCOR' Anhydride.png   -(o)ic anhydride Acetic anhydride.png
    Acetic anhydride
    (Ethanoic anhydride)
    Carbonate Carbonate ROCOOR' Carbonate.png / -carbonate Dimethyl carbonate.png
    Dimethyl carbonate
    Epoxide Epoxide/Oxirane / Epoxide.png epoxy- -oxirane / -ene oxide 2-methyloxirane.png
    2-Methyloxirane
    1,2-Epoxypropane
    1,2-Propylene oxide
    Hydrate Diol RC(OH)(OH)R' Hydrate.png / -diol Butane-22-diol.png
    Butane-2,2-diol
    Hemiacetal Hemiacetal RCH(OR')(OH) Hemiacetal.png / / 1-methoxypropan-1-ol.png
    1-Methoxypropan-1-ol
    Acetal Acetal RCH(OR')(OR'') Acetal.png dialkoxy- -dialkyl acetal 11-dimethoxypropane.png
    1,1-Dimethoxypropane
    Butyraldehyde dimethyl acetal
    Hemiketal Hemiketal RC(OR'')(OH)R' Hemiketal.png / / 2-methoxybutan-2-ol.png
    2-Methoxybutan-2-ol
    Ketal Ketal RC(OR'')(OR''')R' Ketal.png dialkoxy- -dialkyl acetal 22-dimethoxybutane.png
    2,2-Dimethoxybutane
    2-Butanone dimethyl acetal
    Orthoester Orthoester RC(OR')(OR'')(OR''') Orthoester.png trimethoxy- -orthoacetate Trimethylorthoacetate.png
    Trimethylorthoacetate
    (1,1,1-Trimethoxyethane)
    Orthocarbonate Orthocarbonate ROC(OR')(OR'')(OR''') Orthocarbonate.png tetraalkoxy- -orthocarbonate Tetramethylorthocarbonate.png
    Tetramethylorthocarbonate
    (1,1,1,1-Tetramethoxymethane)
    Phenol Phenol PhOH Phenol.png / -phenol M-cresol.png
    3-Methylphenol
    m-Cresol
    Enol Enol RC(OH)=CR'2 Enol.png / -enol But-2-en-2-ol.png
    But-2-en-2-ol
    Enol ether Enol ether RC(OR')=CR''2 Enol ether.png / alkoxy -ene 2-methoxybut-2-ene.png
    2-methoxybut-2-ene
    Hydroperoxide Hydroperoxide ROOH Hydroperoxide.png hydroperoxy- -hydroperoxide 1-hydroperoxypropane.png
    1-Hydroperoxypropane
    n-Propylhydroperoxide
    Peroxide Peroxide ROOR' Peroxide.png peroxy- -peroxide Ditertbutyl peroxide.png
    Di-tert-butyl peroxide
    Ketene Ketene RC(=C=O)R' Ketene.png / -ketene 2-methylbut-1-en-1-one.png
    Methyl ethyl ketene
    (2-Methylbut-1-en-1-one)

    Nitrogen based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Amine Amino RNH2 Amine.png amino- -amine Butan-1-amine.png
    Butan-1-amine
    1-Aminobutane)
    Aldimine / Imine   RCHNH2 Aldimine.png     Butan-1-imine.png
    Butan-1-imine
    Ketimine / Imine     Ketimine.png     Butan-2-imine.png
    Butan-2-imine
    Ketenimine     Ketenimine.png     2-methylbut-1-en-1-imine.png
    2-Methylbut-1-en-1-imine
    Nitrile / Cyanide     Nitrile.png     Butyronitrile.png
    Butyronitrile
    1-Cyanobutane
    Isocyanide / Isonitrile     Isonitrile.png     1-isocyanopropane.png
    1-Isocyanopropane
    1-Propylisocyanide
    Azide     Azide.png     1-azidopropane.png
    1-Azidopropane
    1-Propylazide
    Azo compound / Diimide / Diazene     Azo compound.png     1,2-diethyldiazene.png
    (E)-1,2-diethyldiazene
    (Azoethane)
    Diazonium salt     Diazonium salt.png     Butane-2-diazonium.png
    Butane-2-diazonium
    (2-Diazobutane)
    Carbodiimide     Carbodiimide.png     Diisopropylcarbodiimide.png
    N,N'-Diisopropylcarbodiimide
    Amidine     Amidine.png     Propylamidine.png
    Propylamidine
    Amidrazone     Amidrazone.png     Propylamidrazone.png
    Propylamidrazone
    (Propionimidohydrazide)
    Guanidine     Guanidine.png     1,3-diethyl-2-methylguanidine.png
    1,3-Diethyl-2-methylguanidine
    Hydrazine     Hydrazine.png     1-ethyl-2-methylhydrazine.png
    1-Ethyl-2-methylhydrazine
    Hydrazone     Hydrazone.png     Acetone N,N-dimethylhydrazone.png
    Acetone N,N-dimethylhydrazone
    Aminal     Aminal.png     Propane-2,2-diamine.png
    Propane-2,2-diamine
    Hemiaminal     Hemiaminal.png     2-aminopropan-2-ol.png
    2-Aminopropan-2-ol
    Enamine     Enamine.png     But-2-en-2-amine.png
    (Z)-But-2-en-2-amine
    Aniline     Aniline.png      
    Hydroxylamine     Hydroxyl amine.png      
    Amine oxide / N-oxide     N-oxide.png      
    Aldoxime     Aldoxime.png     Propionaldehyde oxime.png
    Propionaldehyde oxime
    Ketoxime     Ketoxime.png      
    Aldoxime ether     Aldoxime ether.png     Propionaldehyde O-methyl oxime.png
    Propionaldehyde O-methyl oxime
    Ketoxime ether     Ketoxime ether.png      
    Amide     Amide.png      
    Lactam     Lactam.png      
    Carbamic acid     Carbamic acid.png      
    Carbamate     Carbamate.png      
    Urea     Urea.png      
    Isourea     Isourea.png      
    Carbamic acyl halide     Carbamic acyl halide.png      
    Hydroxamic acid     Hydroxamic acid.png      
    Imide     Imide.png      
    Imidoester     Imidoester.png      
    Imidoyl halide     Imidoyl halide.png      
    Hydrazide     Hydrazide.png      
    Cyanate     Cyanate.png      
    Isocyanate     Isocyanate.png      
    Nitro compound     Nitro compound.png      
    Nitroso     Nitroso.png      
    Nitrite     Nitrite.png      
    Nitrate     Nitrate.png      
    Acyl cyanide     Acylcyanide.png     Propionyl cyanide.png
    Propionyl cyanide
    Semicarbazide     Semicarbazide.png      
    Semicarbazone     Semicarbazone.png      

    Sulfur based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Thioether Thioether RSR' Thioether.png thioalkoxy- -thioether File:.png
    Thiol   RSH Thiol.png thioxy- -thiol Butan-1-ol.png
    n-Butanol
    (Butan-1-ol)
    Thial / Thioaldehyde   RCHS File:Thioaldehyde.png     File:.png
    Thione / Thioketone   RCSR' File:Thioketone.png     File:.png
    [[Thioic O-acid]]   RC(S)OH File:Thioic O-acid.png     File:.png
    [[Thioic S-acid]]   RC(O)SH File:Thioic S-acid.png     File:.png
    Dithioic acid   RCS2H File:Dithioic acid.png     File:.png
    Thioyl_halide   RCSX File:Thioyl halide.png     File:.png
    [[Thioic O-ester]]   RC(S)OR' File:Thioic O-ester.png     File:.png
    [[Thioic S-ester]]   RC(O)SR' File:Thioic S-ester.png     File:.png
    Dithioic ester   RCS2R' File:Dithioic acid.png     File:.png

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