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Functional groups A

  • Page ID
    22646
  • In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules arranged in a specific manner. The following tables list common functional groups arranged by heteroatom. The symbols R, R', R'' and R''' usually denote a hydrocarbon chain or a hydrogen but can sometimes be any group of atoms. The symbol X denotes a halide such as F, Br, Cl or I.

    Carbon based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Alkane Alkyl RH Alkane.png alkyl- -ane Butane.png
    Butane
    Alkene Alkenyl R2C=CR2 Alkene.png alkenyl- -ene Butene.png
    (E)-But-2-ene
    Alkyne Alkynyl RC≡CR' Alkyne.png alkynyl- -yne Butyne.png
    But-2-yne
    Allene Allenyl R2C=C=CR2 Allene.png allenyl- -diene Pentadiene.png
    Penta-2,3-diene
    Cumulene Cumulenyl R2C=C=C=CR2 Cumulene.png cumulenyl- -triene Hexa234triene.png
    Hexa-2,3,4-triene
    Benzene derivative Phenyl RC6H5
    RPh
    Phenyl.png phenyl- -benzene Propylbenzene.png
    Propylbenzene
    (Phenylpropane)
    Toluene derivative Benzyl RCH2C6H5
    RBn
    Benzyl.png benzyl- -toluene Benzylbromide.png
    Benzylbromide
    (α-bromotoluene)
    Halide Halo RX Halide.png halo- -halide Butyliodide.png
    Butyl iodide
    (1-Iodobutane)

    Oxygen based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Ether Ether ROR' Ether.png alkoxy- -ether Diethylether.png
    Diethyl ether
    (Ethoxyethane)
    Alcohol Hydroxyl ROH Alcohol.png hydroxy- -ol Butan-1-ol.png
    n-Butanol
    (Butan-1-ol)
    Aldehyde Carbonyl RCHO Aldehyde.png aldo- -al Butyraldehyde.png
    Butyraldehyde
    (Butanal)
    Ketone Carbonyl RCOR' Ketone.png keto- -one Butan-2-one.png
    2-Butanone
    (Methyl ethyl ketone)
    Carboxylic Acid Carboxyl RCO2H Carboxylic acid.png carboxy- -oic acid Butanoic acid.png
    Butanoic acid
    (Butyric acid)
    Acyl halide Haloformyl RCOX Acyl halide.png haloformyl- -oyl halide Butanoyl bromide.png
    Butanoyl bromide
    (Butyryl bromide)
    Ester Ester RCO2R' Ester.png / -(o)ate Ethyl acetate.png
    Ethyl acetate
    (Ethyl ethanoate)
    Lactone Lactone / Lactone.png / -lactone Butyrolactone.png
    γ-Butyrolactone
    Peroxy acid Peracid RCO3H Peroxyacid.png per-
    peroxy-
    -peroxoic acid Peracetic acid.png
    Peracetic acid
    Peroxyacetic acid
    (Ethaneperoxoic acid)
    Anhydride Anhydride RCOOCOR' Anhydride.png   -(o)ic anhydride Acetic anhydride.png
    Acetic anhydride
    (Ethanoic anhydride)
    Carbonate Carbonate ROCOOR' Carbonate.png / -carbonate Dimethyl carbonate.png
    Dimethyl carbonate
    Epoxide Epoxide/Oxirane / Epoxide.png epoxy- -oxirane / -ene oxide 2-methyloxirane.png
    2-Methyloxirane
    1,2-Epoxypropane
    1,2-Propylene oxide
    Hydrate Diol RC(OH)(OH)R' Hydrate.png / -diol Butane-22-diol.png
    Butane-2,2-diol
    Hemiacetal Hemiacetal RCH(OR')(OH) Hemiacetal.png / / 1-methoxypropan-1-ol.png
    1-Methoxypropan-1-ol
    Acetal Acetal RCH(OR')(OR'') Acetal.png dialkoxy- -dialkyl acetal 11-dimethoxypropane.png
    1,1-Dimethoxypropane
    Butyraldehyde dimethyl acetal
    Hemiketal Hemiketal RC(OR'')(OH)R' Hemiketal.png / / 2-methoxybutan-2-ol.png
    2-Methoxybutan-2-ol
    Ketal Ketal RC(OR'')(OR''')R' Ketal.png dialkoxy- -dialkyl acetal 22-dimethoxybutane.png
    2,2-Dimethoxybutane
    2-Butanone dimethyl acetal
    Orthoester Orthoester RC(OR')(OR'')(OR''') Orthoester.png trimethoxy- -orthoacetate Trimethylorthoacetate.png
    Trimethylorthoacetate
    (1,1,1-Trimethoxyethane)
    Orthocarbonate Orthocarbonate ROC(OR')(OR'')(OR''') Orthocarbonate.png tetraalkoxy- -orthocarbonate Tetramethylorthocarbonate.png
    Tetramethylorthocarbonate
    (1,1,1,1-Tetramethoxymethane)
    Phenol Phenol PhOH Phenol.png / -phenol M-cresol.png
    3-Methylphenol
    m-Cresol
    Enol Enol RC(OH)=CR'2 Enol.png / -enol But-2-en-2-ol.png
    But-2-en-2-ol
    Enol ether Enol ether RC(OR')=CR''2 Enol ether.png / alkoxy -ene 2-methoxybut-2-ene.png
    2-methoxybut-2-ene
    Hydroperoxide Hydroperoxide ROOH Hydroperoxide.png hydroperoxy- -hydroperoxide 1-hydroperoxypropane.png
    1-Hydroperoxypropane
    n-Propylhydroperoxide
    Peroxide Peroxide ROOR' Peroxide.png peroxy- -peroxide Ditertbutyl peroxide.png
    Di-tert-butyl peroxide
    Ketene Ketene RC(=C=O)R' Ketene.png / -ketene 2-methylbut-1-en-1-one.png
    Methyl ethyl ketene
    (2-Methylbut-1-en-1-one)

    Nitrogen based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Amine Amino RNH2 Amine.png amino- -amine Butan-1-amine.png
    Butan-1-amine
    1-Aminobutane)
    Aldimine / Imine   RCHNH2 Aldimine.png     Butan-1-imine.png
    Butan-1-imine
    Ketimine / Imine     Ketimine.png     Butan-2-imine.png
    Butan-2-imine
    Ketenimine     Ketenimine.png     2-methylbut-1-en-1-imine.png
    2-Methylbut-1-en-1-imine
    Nitrile / Cyanide     Nitrile.png     Butyronitrile.png
    Butyronitrile
    1-Cyanobutane
    Isocyanide / Isonitrile     Isonitrile.png     1-isocyanopropane.png
    1-Isocyanopropane
    1-Propylisocyanide
    Azide     Azide.png     1-azidopropane.png
    1-Azidopropane
    1-Propylazide
    Azo compound / Diimide / Diazene     Azo compound.png     1,2-diethyldiazene.png
    (E)-1,2-diethyldiazene
    (Azoethane)
    Diazonium salt     Diazonium salt.png     Butane-2-diazonium.png
    Butane-2-diazonium
    (2-Diazobutane)
    Carbodiimide     Carbodiimide.png     Diisopropylcarbodiimide.png
    N,N'-Diisopropylcarbodiimide
    Amidine     Amidine.png     Propylamidine.png
    Propylamidine
    Amidrazone     Amidrazone.png     Propylamidrazone.png
    Propylamidrazone
    (Propionimidohydrazide)
    Guanidine     Guanidine.png     1,3-diethyl-2-methylguanidine.png
    1,3-Diethyl-2-methylguanidine
    Hydrazine     Hydrazine.png     1-ethyl-2-methylhydrazine.png
    1-Ethyl-2-methylhydrazine
    Hydrazone     Hydrazone.png     Acetone N,N-dimethylhydrazone.png
    Acetone N,N-dimethylhydrazone
    Aminal     Aminal.png     Propane-2,2-diamine.png
    Propane-2,2-diamine
    Hemiaminal     Hemiaminal.png     2-aminopropan-2-ol.png
    2-Aminopropan-2-ol
    Enamine     Enamine.png     But-2-en-2-amine.png
    (Z)-But-2-en-2-amine
    Aniline     Aniline.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Hydroxylamine     Hydroxyl amine.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Amine oxide / N-oxide     N-oxide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Aldoxime     Aldoxime.png     Propionaldehyde oxime.png
    Propionaldehyde oxime
    Ketoxime     Ketoxime.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Aldoxime ether     Aldoxime ether.png     Propionaldehyde O-methyl oxime.png
    Propionaldehyde O-methyl oxime
    Ketoxime ether     Ketoxime ether.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Amide     Amide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Lactam     Lactam.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Carbamic acid     Carbamic acid.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Carbamate     Carbamate.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Urea     Urea.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Isourea     Isourea.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Carbamic acyl halide     Carbamic acyl halide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Hydroxamic acid     Hydroxamic acid.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Imide     Imide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Imidoester     Imidoester.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Imidoyl halide     Imidoyl halide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Hydrazide     Hydrazide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Cyanate     Cyanate.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Isocyanate     Isocyanate.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Nitro compound     Nitro compound.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Nitroso     Nitroso.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Nitrite     Nitrite.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Nitrate     Nitrate.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Acyl cyanide     Acylcyanide.png     Propionyl cyanide.png
    Propionyl cyanide
    Semicarbazide     Semicarbazide.png     mks://localhost/
     
    Semicarbazone     Semicarbazone.png     mks://localhost/
     

    Sulfur based

    Chemical class Group Formula Structural Formula Prefix Suffix Example
    Thioether Thioether RSR' Thioether.png thioalkoxy- -thioether File:.png
     
    Thiol   RSH Thiol.png thioxy- -thiol Butan-1-ol.png
    n-Butanol
    (Butan-1-ol)
    Thial / Thioaldehyde   RCHS File:Thioaldehyde.png     File:.png
     
    Thione / Thioketone   RCSR' File:Thioketone.png     File:.png
     
    [[Thioic O-acid]]   RC(S)OH File:Thioic O-acid.png     File:.png
     
    [[Thioic S-acid]]   RC(O)SH File:Thioic S-acid.png     File:.png
     
    Dithioic acid   RCS2H File:Dithioic acid.png     File:.png
     
    Thioyl_halide   RCSX File:Thioyl halide.png     File:.png
     
    [[Thioic O-ester]]   RC(S)OR' File:Thioic O-ester.png     File:.png
     
    [[Thioic S-ester]]   RC(O)SR' File:Thioic S-ester.png     File:.png
     
    Dithioic ester   RCS2R' File:Dithioic acid.png     File:.png
     

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