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5: Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions

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    • 5.1: Chemical Equations
      Chemical reactions occur when one or more chemicals combine to form one or more new chemicals. The law of conservation of matter is obeyed when writing chemical equations to describe chemical reactions.
    • 5.2: Balancing Chemical Equations
      Chemical reactions are represented by chemical equations that list reactants and products. Proper chemical equations are balanced; the same number of each element’s atoms appears on each side of the equation.
    • 5.3: Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
      A double-replacement reaction exchanges the cations (or the anions) of two ionic compounds. A precipitation reaction is a double-replacement reaction in which one product is a solid precipitate. Solubility rules are used to predict whether a precipitate will form or not.
    • 5.4: Acids, Bases, and Neutralization Reactions
      The Arrhenius definition of an acid is a substance that increases the amount of H+ in an aqueous solution. The Arrhenius definition of a base is a substance that increases the amount of OH- in an aqueous solution. Neutralization is the reaction of an acid and a base, which forms water and a salt. Net ionic equations for neutralization reactions may include solid acids, solid bases, solid salts, and water.
    • 5.5: Redox Reactions
      Chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred are called oxidation-reduction, or redox, reactions. Oxidation is the loss of electrons. Reduction is the gain of electrons. Oxidation and reduction always occur together, even though they can be written as separate chemical equations.
    • 5.6: Recognizing Redox Reactions
      Oxidation numbers, indicating if an atom is neural, electron-rich, or electron-poor, are assigned to atoms in a redox equation. Keeping track of oxidation numbers on the reactant and product sides of a chemical equation provide information to determine what species is oxidized and what species is reduced.
    • 5.7: Net Ionic Equations
      The net ionic equation is the chemical equation that shows only those elements, compounds, and ions that are directly involved in the chemical reaction. Notice that in writing the net ionic equation, the positively-charged silver cation was written first on the reactant side, followed by the negatively-charged chloride anion. This is somewhat customary because that is the order in which the ions must be written in the silver chloride product.

    5: Classification and Balancing of Chemical Reactions is shared under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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