# 2.11: Chains and Rings of π-Conjugated Systems

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) $$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$ $$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$ $$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$

$$\newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}$$

$$\newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}$$

$$\newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}$$

$$\newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}$$

$$\newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}$$

$$\newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}$$

$$\newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}$$ $$\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorA}[1]{\vec{#1}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorAt}[1]{\vec{\text{#1}}} % arrow$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorB}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorC}[1]{\textbf{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorD}[1]{\overrightarrow{#1}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectorDt}[1]{\overrightarrow{\text{#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vectE}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash{\mathbf {#1}}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} }$$

$$\newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}}$$

$$\newcommand{\avec}{\mathbf a}$$ $$\newcommand{\bvec}{\mathbf b}$$ $$\newcommand{\cvec}{\mathbf c}$$ $$\newcommand{\dvec}{\mathbf d}$$ $$\newcommand{\dtil}{\widetilde{\mathbf d}}$$ $$\newcommand{\evec}{\mathbf e}$$ $$\newcommand{\fvec}{\mathbf f}$$ $$\newcommand{\nvec}{\mathbf n}$$ $$\newcommand{\pvec}{\mathbf p}$$ $$\newcommand{\qvec}{\mathbf q}$$ $$\newcommand{\svec}{\mathbf s}$$ $$\newcommand{\tvec}{\mathbf t}$$ $$\newcommand{\uvec}{\mathbf u}$$ $$\newcommand{\vvec}{\mathbf v}$$ $$\newcommand{\wvec}{\mathbf w}$$ $$\newcommand{\xvec}{\mathbf x}$$ $$\newcommand{\yvec}{\mathbf y}$$ $$\newcommand{\zvec}{\mathbf z}$$ $$\newcommand{\rvec}{\mathbf r}$$ $$\newcommand{\mvec}{\mathbf m}$$ $$\newcommand{\zerovec}{\mathbf 0}$$ $$\newcommand{\onevec}{\mathbf 1}$$ $$\newcommand{\real}{\mathbb R}$$ $$\newcommand{\twovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\ctwovec}[2]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\threevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cthreevec}[3]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfourvec}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\fivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{r}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\cfivevec}[5]{\left[\begin{array}{c}#1 \\ #2 \\ #3 \\ #4 \\ #5 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\mattwo}[4]{\left[\begin{array}{rr}#1 \amp #2 \\ #3 \amp #4 \\ \end{array}\right]}$$ $$\newcommand{\laspan}[1]{\text{Span}\{#1\}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bcal}{\cal B}$$ $$\newcommand{\ccal}{\cal C}$$ $$\newcommand{\scal}{\cal S}$$ $$\newcommand{\wcal}{\cal W}$$ $$\newcommand{\ecal}{\cal E}$$ $$\newcommand{\coords}[2]{\left\{#1\right\}_{#2}}$$ $$\newcommand{\gray}[1]{\color{gray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lgray}[1]{\color{lightgray}{#1}}$$ $$\newcommand{\rank}{\operatorname{rank}}$$ $$\newcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\col}{\text{Col}}$$ $$\renewcommand{\row}{\text{Row}}$$ $$\newcommand{\nul}{\text{Nul}}$$ $$\newcommand{\var}{\text{Var}}$$ $$\newcommand{\corr}{\text{corr}}$$ $$\newcommand{\len}[1]{\left|#1\right|}$$ $$\newcommand{\bbar}{\overline{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bhat}{\widehat{\bvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\bperp}{\bvec^\perp}$$ $$\newcommand{\xhat}{\widehat{\xvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\vhat}{\widehat{\vvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\uhat}{\widehat{\uvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\what}{\widehat{\wvec}}$$ $$\newcommand{\Sighat}{\widehat{\Sigma}}$$ $$\newcommand{\lt}{<}$$ $$\newcommand{\gt}{>}$$ $$\newcommand{\amp}{&}$$ $$\definecolor{fillinmathshade}{gray}{0.9}$$

Ethylene: The π system is analogous to σ-bonding in H2

Viewed from the top or bottom, the ethylene π-orbitals look like the H2 σ orbitals. Thus we can map solutions from chains and rings of H atoms onto chains and rings of π-orbitals (as we did for the three-orbital case of O3).

## Chains and rings of four H atoms or π-orbitals (H4 or butadiene):

 MO diagram for H4 or butadiene

• In the linear form of the molecule, the combination of AOs makes a ladder of evenly spaced energy levels that alternate g – u – g – u …. Each successive orbital has one more node. This is a general rule for linear chains of σ or π orbitals with even numbers of atoms.
• In the cyclic form of the molecule, there is one non-degenerate orbital at the bottom, one at the top, and a ladder of doubly degenerate orbitals in between. This is also a general rule for cyclic molecules with even numbers of atoms. This is the origin of the 4n+2 rule for aromatics.
• H4 has four valence electrons, and by analogy butadiene has four π-electrons. These electrons fill the lowest two MOs in the linear form of the molecule, corresponding to two conjugated π-bonds in butadiene (H2C=CH-CH=CH2).
• In the cyclic form of the molecule, the degenerate orbitals are singly occupied. The molecule can break the degeneracy (and lower its energy) by distorting to a puckered rectangle. This is a general rule for anti-aromatic cyclic molecules (4n rule). Thus cyclobutadiene should be anti-aromatic and have two single and two double bonds that are not delocalized by resonance.

Cyclobutadiene is actually a very unstable molecule because it polymerizes to relieve ring strain. Sterically hindered derivatives of the molecule do have the puckered rectangular structure predicted by MO theory.

## Benzene π-orbitals:

How do we get from a 4-atom to 6-atom chain?

By analogy to the process we used to go from a 2-atom chain to a 4-atom chain, we now go from 4 to 6. We start with the orbitals of the 4-atom chain, which form a ladder of g and u orbitals. Then we make g and u combinations of the two atoms that we are adding at the ends. By combining g's with g's and u's with u's, we end up with the solutions for a string of 6 atoms. Closing these orbitals into a loop gives us the π molecular orbitals of the benzene molecule. The result is three π bonds, as we expected. Benzene fits the 4n+2 rule (n=2) and is therefore aromatic.

Here we have used the isolobal analogy to construct MO diagrams for π-bonded systems, such as ethylene and benzene, from combinations of s-orbitals. It raises the interesting question of whether the aromatic 4n+2 rule might apply to s-orbital systems, i.e., if three molecules of H2 could get together to form an aromatic H6molecule. In fact, recent studies of hydrogen under ultra-high pressures in a diamond anvil cell show that such structures do form. A solid hydrogen phase exists that contains sheets of distorted six-membered rings, analogous to the fully connected 2D network of six-membered rings found in graphite or graphene.[6]

It should now be evident from our construction of MO diagrams for four- and six-orbital molecules that we can keep adding atomic orbitals to make chains and rings of 8, 10, 12... atoms. In each case, the g and u orbitals form a ladder of MOs. At the bottom rung of the ladder of an N-atom chain, there are no nodes in the MO, and we add one node for every rung until we get to the top, where there are N-1 nodes. Another way of saying this is that the wavelength of an electron in orbital x, counting from the bottom (1,2,3...x,...N), is 2Na/x, where a is the distance between atoms. We will find in Chapters 6 and 10 that we can learn a great deal about the electronic properties of metals and semiconductors from this model, using the infinite chain of atoms as a model for the crystal.

This page titled 2.11: Chains and Rings of π-Conjugated Systems is shared under a CC BY-SA 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by Chemistry 310 (Wikibook) via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform.