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5: Molecules and Compounds

  • Page ID
    25409
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    • 5.1: Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water
    • 5.2: Chemical Bonds
      Ionic vs. Covalent vs. Metallic bonding.
    • 5.3: Representing Compounds - Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models
    • 5.4: Ionic Compounds- Formulas and Names
      Chemists use nomenclature rules to clearly name compounds. Ionic and molecular compounds are named using somewhat-different methods. Binary ionic compounds typically consist of a metal and a nonmetal. The name of the metal is written first, followed by the name of the nonmetal with its ending changed to –ide. For example, K2O is called potassium oxide. If the metal can form ions with different charges, a Roman numeral in parentheses follows the name of the metal to specify its charge.
    • 5.5: Covalent Bonding- Simple Lewis Structures
      The strength of a covalent bond depends on the overlap between the valence orbitals of the bonded atoms. Bond order is the number of electron pairs that hold two atoms together. Single bonds have a bond order of one, and multiple bonds with bond orders of two (a double bond) and three (a triple bond) are quite common. In closely related compounds with bonds between the same kinds of atoms, the bond with the highest bond order is both the shortest and the strongest.
    • 5.6: The Lewis Model - Representing Valance Electrons with Dots
      Lewis dot symbols can be used to predict the number of bonds formed by most elements in their compounds. Lewis electron dot symbols, which consist of the chemical symbol for an element surrounded by dots that represent its valence electrons, grouped into pairs often placed above, below, and to the left and right of the symbol. The structures reflect the fact that the elements in period 2 and beyond tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to reach a total of 8 valence electrons in their compounds.
    • 5.7: Molecular Compounds- Formulas and Names
      Molecular compounds can form compounds with different ratios of their elements, so prefixes are used to specify the numbers of atoms of each element in a molecule of the compound. Examples include SF6, sulfur hexafluoride, and N2O4, dinitrogen tetroxide. Acids are an important class of compounds containing hydrogen and having special nomenclature rules. Binary acids are named using the prefix hydro-, changing the –ide suffix to –ic, and adding “acid;” HCl is hydrochloric acid.
    • 5.8: Composition of Compounds
      Molecular formulas tell you how many atoms of each element are in a compound, and empirical formulas tell you the simplest or most reduced ratio of elements in a compound. If a compound's molecular formula cannot be reduced any more, then the empirical formula is the same as the molecular formula. Combustion analysis can determine the empirical formula of a compound, but cannot determine the molecular formula (other techniques can though).
    • 5.9: Determining a Chemical Formula from Experimental Data
      In this section, we will explore how to derive the chemical formulas of unknown substances from experimental mass measurements.
    • 5.10: Formula Mass and the Mole Concept for Compounds
    • 5.11: Organic Compounds
      Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, nearly all of which also contain hydrogen atoms.


    5: Molecules and Compounds is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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