# P2: Standard Reduction Potentials by Value

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The following table provides Eo for selected reduction reactions. Values are from the following sources: Bard, A. J.; Parsons, B.; Jordon, J., eds. Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions, Dekker: New York, 1985; Milazzo, G.; Caroli, S.; Sharma, V. K. Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials, Wiley: London, 1978; Swift, E. H.; Butler, E. A. Quantitative Measurements and Chemical Equilibria, Freeman: New York, 1972.

The table is ordered such that the stronger (more reactive) reductants are at the top and the stronger oxidants are at the bottom.

Standard Cathode (Reduction) Half-Reaction Standard Reduction Potential E° (volts)
Li+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Li(s) -3.040
Rb+ + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Rb (s) -2.98
K+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ K(s) -2.93
Ba2+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ba(s) -2.92
Cs+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cs(s) -2.92
Ba2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ba(s) -2.91
Sr2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Sr(s) -2.89
Ca2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ca(s) -2.84
Na+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Na(s) -2.713
Mg(OH)2(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mg(s) + 2OH -2.687
La3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ La(s) -2.38
Mg2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mg(s) -2.356
Ce3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ce(s) -2.336
Al(OH)4 + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Al(s) + 4OH -2.310
BaO(s) + 2H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ba(s) + H2O(l) -2.166
AlF63 + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Al(s) + 6F -2.07
Be2+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Be(s) -1.99
B(OH)4 + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ B(s) + 4OH -1.811
Al3+(aq) + 3e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Al(s) -1.676
U3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ U(s) -1.66
ZnO2 + 4H+ + 4e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Zn(s) + 2H2O     -1.473
SiF62 + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Si(s) + 6F -1.37
Zn(CN)42− + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Zn(s) + 4CN -1.34

Zn(OH)42− + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Zn(s) + 4OH

-1.285
Mn2+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mn(s) -1.17
CdS(s) +  2e− $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cd(s) + S2− -1.17
V2+ + 2e− $$\rightleftharpoons$$ V(s) -1.13
2SO32 + 2H2O(l) + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ S2O42 + 4OH -1.13

Zn(NH3)42+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Zn(s) + 4NH3

-1.04
O2 (aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ O2-(aq) -1.0

Cd(CN)42− + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cd(s) + 4CN

-0.943

MoO42 + 4H2O(l) + 6e$$\rightleftharpoons$$Mo(s) + 8OH

-0.913

SO42 + H2O(l) + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ SO32+ 2OH

-0.936

SiO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Si(s) + 2H2O(l)

-0.909
Cr2+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cr(s) -0.90

B(OH)3 + 3H+ + 3e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ B(s) + 3H2O(l)

-0.890
2H2O(l) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2(g) + 2OH-(aq) -0.828
Zn2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Zn(s) -0.7618

Co(OH)2(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Co(s) + 2OH

-0.746
Cr3+(aq) + 3e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cr(s) -0.74

Ni(OH)2 + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ni(s) + 2OH

-0.72

Ag2S(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Ag(s) + S2−

-0.71

Se(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Se2

-0.67 in 1 M NaOH

Cd(NH3)42+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cd(s) + 4NH3

-0.622

2SO32 + 3H2O(l) + 4e $$\rightleftharpoons$$S2O32 + 6OH

-0.576 in 1 M NaOH

Ga3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ga(s)

-0.56

U4+ + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ U3+

-0.52

SiO2(s) + 8H+ + 8e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ SiH4(g) + 2H2O(l)

-0.516
Sb + 3H+ + 3e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ SbH3(g) -0.510

H3PO3+ 2H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ H3PO2 + H2O(l)

-0.50

Ni(NH3)62+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ni(s) + 6NH3

-0.49

2CO2(g) + 2H+ +2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2C2O4

-0.481
Cr3+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cr2+ -0.424
Fe2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Fe(s) -0.44

S(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ S2−

-0.407
Cd2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cd(s) -0.4030

Ag(NH3)2+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ag(s) + 2NH3

-0.373

Ti3+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ti2+

-0.37

PbSO4(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Pb(s) + SO42

-0.356
Co2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Co(s) -0.277

2SO42 + 4H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ S2O62 + 2H2O(l)

-0.25

N2(g) + 5H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ N2H5+

-0.23

H3PO4 + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ H3PO3 + H2O(l)

-0.28
Ni2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ni(s) -0.257

V3+ + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ V2+

-0.255
As + 3H+ + 3e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ AsH3(g) -0.225

CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ HCO2H

-0.20
Mo3+ + 3e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mo(s) -0.2

Ti2+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ti(s)

-0.163

MoO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mo(s) + 2H2O(l)

-0.152
AgI(s) + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ag(s) + I -0.152
Sn2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Sn(s) -0.136

CrO42 + 4H2O(l) + 3e $$\rightleftharpoons$$2Cr(OH)4 + 4OH

-0.13 in 1 M NaOH
Pb2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Pb(s) -0.126

WO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ W(s) + 2H2O(l)

-0.119

Se(s) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2Se(g)

-0.115

CO2(g) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ CO(g) + H2O(l)

-0.106

WO3(s) + 6H+ + 6e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ W(s) + 3H2O(l)

-0.090

Hg2I2(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Hg(l) + 2I

-0.0405
Fe3+(aq) + 3e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Fe(s) -0.037
2H+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2(g) 0.00

P(s,white) + 3H+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ PH3(g)

0.06
AgBr(s) + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ag(s) + Br 0.071

S4O62 + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$2S2O32

0.080

Co(NH3)63+ +e$$\rightleftharpoons$$Co(NH3)62+

0.1

Ru(NH3)63+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ru(s) + Ru(NH3)62+

0.10

S(s) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2S

0.144
Sn4+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Sn2+(aq) 0.154
Cu2+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cu+(aq) 0.159

UO22+ + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$UO2+

0.16

Co(OH)3(s) + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Co(OH)2(s) + OH

0.17
ClO4-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ ClO3-(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 0.17

SO42 + 4H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2SO3 (aq) + H2O(l)

0.172

BiCl4 + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Bi(s) + 4Cl

0.199

SbO+ + 2H+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Sb(s) + H2O(l)

0.212
AgCl(s) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ag(s) + Cl-(aq) 0.2223
HCHO + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ CH3OH 0.2323

HAsO2 + 3H+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ As(s) + 2H2O(l)

0.240
Ru3+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ru2+ 0.249

IO3+ 3H2O(l) + 6e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ I + 6OH

0.257

Hg2Cl2(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Hg(l) + 2Cl

0.2682

UO2+ + 4H+ + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$U4+ + 2H2O(l)

0.27
Bi3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Bi(s) 0.317

UO22+ + 4H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ U4+ + 2H2O(l)

0.327

VO2+ + 2H+ +e$$\rightleftharpoons$$V3+ + H2O(l)

0.337
Cu2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cu(s) 0.3419
ClO3-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ ClO2-(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 0.35

Fe(CN)63− + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Fe(CN)64−

0.356

O2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 4OH

0.401

ClO + H2O(l) + e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ ½Cl2(g) + 2OH

0.421 in 1 M NaOH

Ag2C2O4(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Ag(s) + C2O42

0.47
Cu+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cu(s) 0.52
I2(s) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2I-(aq) 0.5355

I3 + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 3I

0.536
Cu2+ + Cl + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ CuCl(s) 0.559

H3AsO4 + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ HAsO2 + 2H2O(l)

0.560

S2O62 + 4H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2H2SO3

0.569
ClO2-(aq) + H2O(l) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ ClO-(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 0.59
MnO4 + 2H2O(l) + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ MnO2(s) + 4OH 0.60

Sb2O5(s) + 6H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2SbO+ + 3H2O(l)

0.605
PtCl62 + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ PtCl42- + 2Cl 0.68

RuO2(s) + 4H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ru(s) + 2H2O(l)

0.68

O2(g) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2O2

0.695
PtCl42 + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Pt(s) + 4Cl 0.73

H2SeO3 + 4H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Se(s) + 3H2O(l)

0.74
Tl3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Tl(s) 0.742

Tl3+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Tl+

0.77 in 1 M HCl

Fe3+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Fe2+(aq) 0.771
Hg22+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Hg(l) 0.7960
Ag+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ag(s) 0.7996
Hg2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Hg(l) 0.8535
Cu2+ + I +e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ CuI(s) 0.86

Ru(CN)63− +e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ru(s) + Ru(CN)64−

0.86

ClO + H2O(l) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Cl + 2OH

0.890 in 1 M NaOH
2Hg2+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Hg22+(aq) 0.911

HgO(s) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Hg(l) + H2O(l)

0.926

NO3 + 3H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ HNO2 + H2O(l)

0.94
MnO2(s) + 4H+ + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mn3+ (aq) + 2H2O(l) 0.95
NO3-(aq) + 4H+(aq) + 3e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ NO(g) + 2H2O(l) 0.96

HIO + H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ I + H2O(l)

0.985

HNO2 + H+ +e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ NO(g) + H2O(l)

0.996

VO22+ + 2H+ +e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ VO2+ + H2O(l)

1.000

AuCl4 + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Au(s) + 4Cl

1.002
NO2 (g) + H+ (aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ HNO2 (aq) 1.07
Br2(l) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Br-(aq) 1.087

Fe(phen)63+ +e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Fe(phen)62+

1.147

SeO43 + 4H+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ H2SeO3 + H2O(l)

1.151

ClO3 + 2H+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ ClO2(g) + H2O

1.175

ClO3 + 3H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ HClO2 + H2O

1.181

IO3 + 6H+ + 5e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ ½I2(s) + 3H2O(l)

1.195
Pt2+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Pt(s) 1.2

ClO4 + 2H+ + 2e $$\rightleftharpoons$$ ClO3 + H2O

1.201
O2(g) + 4H+(aq) + 4e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2H2O(l) 1.229

MnO2(s) + 4H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mn2+ + 2H2O(l)

1.23

2HNO2 + 4H+ + 4e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ N2O(g) + 3H2O(l)

1.297

HOBr + H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Br + H2O(l)

1.341
Cr2O72-(aq) + 14H+(aq) + 6e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Cr3+(aq) + 7H2O(l) 1.36

Au3+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Au+

1.36

Hg2Br2(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Hg(l) + 2Br

1.392
Cl2(g) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Cl-(aq) 1.396

Hg2Br2(s) + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2Hg(l) + 2Br

1.392
Ce4+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ce3+(aq) 1.44
PbO2(s) + 4H+ +2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Pb2+(aq) + 2H2O(l) 1.46

BrO3 + 6H+ + 6e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Br + 3H2O

1.478

Mn3+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mn2+

1.5

BrO3 + 6H+ + 5e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ ½Br2(l) + 3H2O

1.5
MnO4-(aq) + 8H+(aq) + 5e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Mn2+(aq) + 4H2O(l) 1.51
Au3+ + 3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Au(s) 1.52

2NO(g) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ N2O(g) + H2O(l)

1.59

HOBr + H+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ ½Br + H2O(l)

1.604

HClO2 + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ HOCl + H2O

1.64

PbO2(s) + SO42 + 4H+ + 2e− $$\rightleftharpoons$$ PbSO4(s) + 2H2O(l)

1.690

MnO4 + 4H+ +3e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ MnO2(s) + 2H2O(l)

1.70
Ce4+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Ce3+ 1.72

N2O(g) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ N2(g) + H2O(l)

1.77
H2O2(aq) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2H2O(l) 1.763
Au+ + e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ Au(s) 1.83
Co3+(aq) + e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ Co2+(aq) 1.92

S2O82 + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$2SO42

1.96
O3(g) + 2H+(aq) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ O2(g) + H2O(l) 2.07
F2(g) + 2e- $$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2F-(aq) 2.87

F2(g) + 2H+ + 2e$$\rightleftharpoons$$ 2HF

3.053