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Chemistry LibreTexts

Acidity of Substituted Benzoic Acids

Electron-withdrawing groups

The conjugate base of benzoic acid is destabilized by electron-donating groups.  This makes the acid less acidic

 

Electron-withdrawing groups deactivate the benzene ring to electrophilic attack and make benzoic acids more acidic.

 

 

Electron-donating groups

 

The conjugate base of benzoic acid is stabilized by electron-withdrawing groups.  This makes the acid more acidic

Electron-withdrawing groups activate the benzene ring to electrophilic attack and make benzoic acids less acidic.