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Chemistry LibreTexts

CHM 101: Wijesinghe


Chapter 1:   Measurements

  • Write the names and abbreviations for the metric or SI units used in measurements of length, volume, mass, temperature, and time.
  • Write a number in scientific notation.
  • Identify a number as measured or exact; determine the number of significant figures in a measured number.
  • Adjust calculated answers to give the correct number of significant figures.
  • Use the numerical values of prefixes to write a metric equality.
  • Write a conversion factor for two units that describe the same quantity.
  • Use conversion factors to change from one unit to another.
  • Calculate the density of a substance; use density to calculate the mass or volume of a substance.

Chapter 2:   Energy and Matter

  • Classify properties/changes as either physical or chemical.
  • Given a temperature, calculate a corresponding temperature on another scale.
  • Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures.
  • Identify energy as potential or kinetic; list some different types of energy.
  • Identify the units of energy and write the specific heat expressions.
  • Use specific heat to calculate heat loss or gain, temperature change, or mass of a sample.

Chapter 3:  Atoms and Elements

  • Write the name of an element from its symbol or its period and group number.
  • Given the name of an element, write its correct symbol; from the symbol, write the correct name.
  • Use the periodic table to identify the group and the period of an element
  • Describe the electrical charge and location in an atom for a proton, a neutron, and an electron.
  • Given the atomic number and the mass number of an atom, state the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • Give the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the isotopes of an element.

Chapter 4:  Nuclear Chemistry

  • Describe alpha, beta, positron, and gamma radiation
  • Write and equation showing mass numbers and atomic numbers for radioactive decay
  • Given the half-life of a radioisotope, calculate the amount of radioisotope remaining after one or more half-lives
  • Describe the processes of nuclear fission and fusion

Chapter 5: Compounds and Their Bonds 

  • Using the periodic table, write the electron-dot symbol for a representative element.
  • Using the octet rule, write the symbols of the simple ions for the representative elements.
  • Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound.
  • Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name.
  • Write a formula of a compound containing a polyatomic ion.
  • Given the formula of a covalent compound, write its correct name; given the name of a covalent compound, write its formula.

Chapter 6: Chemical Reactions and Quantities

  • Use atomic masses to determine the mass of a sample of atoms, the number of atoms in a sample, and formula masses of compounds.
  • Given the chemical formula of a substance, calculate its molar mass.
  • Given the number of moles of a substance, calculate the mass in grams; given the mass, calculate the number of moles.
  • Given the formula of a compound, calculate the percent composition. From the percent composition, determine the empirical formula of a compound.
  • Determine the molecular formula of a substance from the empirical formula and molar mass.

Chapter 7: Gases

  • Describe the kinetic theory of gases and the properties of gases.
  • Describe the units of measurement used for pressure and change from one unit to another.
  • Use the pressure-volume relationship (Boyle’s law) to determine the new pressure or volume of a certain amount of gas at a constant temperature.
  • Use the temperature-volume relationship (Charles’ law) to determine the new temperature or volume of a certain amount of gas at a constant pressure.
  • Use the temperature-pressure relationship (Gay-Lussac’s law) to determine the new temperature or pressure of a certain amount of gas at a constant volume.
  • Describe the relationship between the amount of gas and its volume and use this relationship in calculations.
  • Use the ideal gas law to solve for P, V, T, or n of a gas when given three or four values in the ideal gas equation. Calculate density, molar mass, or volume of a gas in a chemical reaction.
  • Use partial pressures to calculate the total pressure of a mixture of gases.

Chapter 8: Solutions

  • Identify the solute and solvent in a solution.  Describe the formation of a solution.
  • Identify solutes as electrolyte or nonelectrolyte
  • Define solubility; distinguish between an unsaturated and a saturated solution.
  • Calculate the percent concentration of a solute in a solution; use percent concentration to calculate the amount of solute or solution.
  • Calculate the molarity of a solution; use molarity to calculate the moles of solute or the volume of solution.  Describe the dilution of a solution.
  • Identify a mixture as a solution, a colloid, or suspension.  Describe how the particles of a solution affect the physical properties of a solution.

Chapter 9: Chemical Equilibrium

  • Describe how temperature, concentration, and catalysts affect the rate of a reaction.
  • Use the concept of reversible reactions to explain chemical equilibrium.
  • Calculate the equilibrium constant for a reversible reaction given the concentrations of reactants and products Use an equilibrium constant to predict the extent of reaction and to calculate equilibrium concentrations.
  • Use Le Chatelier’s Principle to describe the changes made in equilibrium concentrations when reaction conditions change.

Chapter 10: Acids and Bases

  • Describe and name Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases; identify conjugate acid-base pairs.
  • Use the ion-product constant of water to calculate the [H3O+] and [OH-] in an aqueous solution.
  • Predict whether a salt will form an acidic, basic or neutral solution.
  • Describe the role of buffers in maintaining the pH of a solution