Chapter 1: Measurements
- Write the names and abbreviations for the metric or SI units used in measurements of length, volume, mass, temperature, and time.
- Write a number in scientific notation.
- Identify a number as measured or exact; determine the number of significant figures in a measured number.
- Adjust calculated answers to give the correct number of significant figures.
- Use the numerical values of prefixes to write a metric equality.
- Write a conversion factor for two units that describe the same quantity.
- Use conversion factors to change from one unit to another.
- Calculate the density of a substance; use density to calculate the mass or volume of a substance.
Chapter 2: Energy and Matter
- Classify properties/changes as either physical or chemical.
- Given a temperature, calculate a corresponding temperature on another scale.
- Classify matter as pure substances or mixtures.
- Identify energy as potential or kinetic; list some different types of energy.
- Identify the units of energy and write the specific heat expressions.
- Use specific heat to calculate heat loss or gain, temperature change, or mass of a sample.
Chapter 3: Atoms and Elements
- Write the name of an element from its symbol or its period and group number.
- Given the name of an element, write its correct symbol; from the symbol, write the correct name.
- Use the periodic table to identify the group and the period of an element
- Describe the electrical charge and location in an atom for a proton, a neutron, and an electron.
- Given the atomic number and the mass number of an atom, state the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
- Give the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the isotopes of an element.
Chapter 4: Nuclear Chemistry
- Describe alpha, beta, positron, and gamma radiation
- Write and equation showing mass numbers and atomic numbers for radioactive decay
- Given the half-life of a radioisotope, calculate the amount of radioisotope remaining after one or more half-lives
- Describe the processes of nuclear fission and fusion
Chapter 5: Compounds and Their Bonds
- Using the periodic table, write the electron-dot symbol for a representative element.
- Using the octet rule, write the symbols of the simple ions for the representative elements.
- Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound.
- Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name.
- Write a formula of a compound containing a polyatomic ion.
- Given the formula of a covalent compound, write its correct name; given the name of a covalent compound, write its formula.
Chapter 6: Chemical Reactions and Quantities
- Use atomic masses to determine the mass of a sample of atoms, the number of atoms in a sample, and formula masses of compounds.
- Given the chemical formula of a substance, calculate its molar mass.
- Given the number of moles of a substance, calculate the mass in grams; given the mass, calculate the number of moles.
- Given the formula of a compound, calculate the percent composition. From the percent composition, determine the empirical formula of a compound.
- Determine the molecular formula of a substance from the empirical formula and molar mass.
Chapter 7: Gases
- Describe the kinetic theory of gases and the properties of gases.
- Describe the units of measurement used for pressure and change from one unit to another.
- Use the pressure-volume relationship (Boyle’s law) to determine the new pressure or volume of a certain amount of gas at a constant temperature.
- Use the temperature-volume relationship (Charles’ law) to determine the new temperature or volume of a certain amount of gas at a constant pressure.
- Use the temperature-pressure relationship (Gay-Lussac’s law) to determine the new temperature or pressure of a certain amount of gas at a constant volume.
- Describe the relationship between the amount of gas and its volume and use this relationship in calculations.
- Use the ideal gas law to solve for P, V, T, or n of a gas when given three or four values in the ideal gas equation. Calculate density, molar mass, or volume of a gas in a chemical reaction.
- Use partial pressures to calculate the total pressure of a mixture of gases.
Chapter 8: Solutions
- Identify the solute and solvent in a solution. Describe the formation of a solution.
- Identify solutes as electrolyte or nonelectrolyte
- Define solubility; distinguish between an unsaturated and a saturated solution.
- Calculate the percent concentration of a solute in a solution; use percent concentration to calculate the amount of solute or solution.
- Calculate the molarity of a solution; use molarity to calculate the moles of solute or the volume of solution. Describe the dilution of a solution.
- Identify a mixture as a solution, a colloid, or suspension. Describe how the particles of a solution affect the physical properties of a solution.
Chapter 9: Chemical Equilibrium
- Describe how temperature, concentration, and catalysts affect the rate of a reaction.
- Use the concept of reversible reactions to explain chemical equilibrium.
- Calculate the equilibrium constant for a reversible reaction given the concentrations of reactants and products Use an equilibrium constant to predict the extent of reaction and to calculate equilibrium concentrations.
- Use Le Chatelier’s Principle to describe the changes made in equilibrium concentrations when reaction conditions change.
Chapter 10: Acids and Bases
- Describe and name Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases; identify conjugate acid-base pairs.
- Use the ion-product constant of water to calculate the [H3O+] and [OH-] in an aqueous solution.
- Predict whether a salt will form an acidic, basic or neutral solution.
- Describe the role of buffers in maintaining the pH of a solution