# Div containers

Exercise $$\PageIndex{0}$$: This is exercise #0. The same as #1, but different answer code

Why is the workfunction generally lower than the ionization energy?

The workfunction of a metal refers to the minimum energy required to extract an electron from the surface of a (bulk) metal by the absorption a photon of light. The workfunction will vary from metal to metal. In contrast, ionization energy is the energy needed to detach electrons from atoms and also varies with each particular atom, with the valence electrons require less energy to extract than core electrons (i.e., from lower shells) that are more closely bound to the nuclei. The electrons in the metal lattice there less bound (i.e., free to move within the metal) and removing one of these electrons is much easier than removing an electron from an atom because the metallic bonds of the bulk metal reduces their binding energy. As we will show in subsequent chapters, the more delocalized an particle is, the lower its energy

Exercise $$\PageIndex{1}$$: This is exercise #1

Why is the workfunction generally lower than the ionization energy?

The workfunction of a metal refers to the minimum energy required to extract an electron from the surface of a (bulk) metal by the absorption a photon of light. The workfunction will vary from metal to metal. In contrast, ionization energy is the energy needed to detach electrons from atoms and also varies with each particular atom, with the valence electrons require less energy to extract than core electrons (i.e., from lower shells) that are more closely bound to the nuclei. The electrons in the metal lattice there less bound (i.e., free to move within the metal) and removing one of these electrons is much easier than removing an electron from an atom because the metallic bonds of the bulk metal reduces their binding energy. As we will show in subsequent chapters, the more delocalized an particle is, the lower its energy

Exercise $$\PageIndex{2}$$: This is exercise #2

Why is the workfunction generally lower than the ionization energy?

Exercise $$\PageIndex{3}$$: This is exercise #2