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Chemistry LibreTexts

8: Chapter 8 - Redox

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    • 8.1: Balancing redox reactions
      In studying redox chemistry, it is important to begin by learning to balance electrochemical reactions. Simple redox reactions (for example, H2 + I2 → 2 HI) can be balanced by inspection, but for more complex reactions it is helpful to have a foolproof, systematic method. The ion-electron method allows one to balance redox reactions regardless of their complexity. We illustrate this method with two examples.
    • 8.2: Electrochemical potentials
      In electrochemical cells, or in redox reactions that happen in solution, the thermodynamic driving force can be measured as the cell potential. Chemical reactions are spontaneous in the direction of -ΔG, which is also the direction in which the cell potential (defined as Eanode - Ecathode) is positive. A cell operating in the spontaneous direction (for example, a battery that is discharging) is called a galvanic cell. A cell that is being driven in the non-spontaneous direction is called an elec
    • 8.3: Latimer and Frost diagrams
      In addition to Pourbaix diagrams, there are two other kinds of redox stability diagrams known as Latimer and Frost diagrams. Each of these diagrams contains similar information, but one representation may be more useful in a given situation than the others. Latimer and Frost diagrams help predict stability relative to higher and lower oxidation states, usually at one fixed pH. Pourbaix diagrams help understand pH-dependent equilibria, which are often coupled to solubility equilibria and corrosio
    • 8.4: Pourbaix diagrams
      Pourbaix Diagrams plot electrochemical stability for different redox states of an element as a function of pH. As noted above, these diagrams are essentially phase diagrams that plot the map the conditions of potential and pH (most typically in aqueous solutions) where different redox species are stable. We saw a simple example of such a diagram in section 4.5 for H2O. Typically, the water redox reactions are plotted as dotted lines on these more complicated diagrams for other elements.