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Chemistry LibreTexts

6: Chapter 6 - Inorganic Thermodynamics

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    • 6.1: Enthalpy
      If a chemical change is carried out at constant pressure and the only work done is caused by expansion or contraction, q for the change is called the enthalpy change with the symbol ΔH. Examples of enthalpy changes include enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of fusion, enthalpy of vaporization, and standard enthalpy of formation.   If the enthalpies of formation are available for the reactants and products of a reaction, the enthalpy change can be calculated using Hess’s law.
    • 6.2: Spontaneity
      Chemical and physical processes have a natural tendency to occur in one direction under certain conditions. A spontaneous process occurs without the need for a continual input of energy from some external source, while a nonspontaneous process requires such. Systems undergoing a spontaneous process may or may not experience a gain or loss of energy, but they will experience a change in the way matter and/or energy is distributed within the system.
    • 6.3: Entropy
      Entropy (S) is a state function that can be related to the number of microstates for a system (the number of ways the system can be arranged) and to the ratio of reversible heat to kelvin temperature. It may be interpreted as a measure of the dispersal or distribution of matter and/or energy in a system, and it is often described as representing the “disorder” of the system. For a given substance, \(S_{solid} < S_{liquid} < S_{gas}\) in a given physical state at a given temperature.
    • 6.4: Gibbs Energy
      Gibbs free energy (G) is a state function defined with regard to system quantities only and may be used to predict the spontaneity of a process. A negative value for ΔG indicates a spontaneous process; a positive ΔG indicates a nonspontaneous process; and a ΔG of zero indicates that the system is at equilibrium. A number of approaches to the computation of free energy changes are possible.
    • 6.5: Lattice Energy
      The Lattice energy, U, is the amount of energy requried to separate a mole of the solid (s) into a gas (g) of its ions.
    • 6.6: The Born-Lande' equation
      The Born-Landé equation is a concept originally formulated in 1918 by the scientists Born and Lande and is used to calculate the lattice energy (measure of the strength of bonds) of a compound. This expression takes into account both the Born interactions as well as the Coulomb attractions.
    • 6.7: Lattice energies and solubility