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Chemistry LibreTexts

3: Chapter 3 - Covalent Bonding

  • Page ID
    • 3.1: Molecular Orbital Theory
      Molecular orbital (MO) theory describes the behavior of electrons in a molecule in terms of combinations of the atomic wavefunctions. The resulting molecular orbitals may extend over all the atoms in the molecule. Bonding molecular orbitals are formed by in-phase combinations of atomic wavefunctions, and electrons in these orbitals stabilize a molecule. Antibonding molecular orbitals result from out-of-phase combinations and electrons in these orbitals make a molecule less stable.
    • 3.2: Basics of Valence Bond theory
    • 3.3: The shapes of molecules (VSEPR theory) and orbital hybridization
    • 3.4: Bond polarity and bond strength
    • 3.5: Advanced Theories of Covalent Bonding (Exercises)
      These are homework exercises to accompany the Textmap created for "Chemistry" by OpenStax. Complementary General Chemistry question banks can be found for other Textmaps and can be accessed here. In addition to these publicly available questions, access to private problems bank for use in exams and homework is available to faculty only on an individual basis; please contact Delmar Larsen for an account with access permission.
    • 3.6: Intermolecular Forces
      The physical properties of condensed matter (liquids and solids) can be explained in terms of the kinetic molecular theory. In a liquid, intermolecular attractive forces hold the molecules in contact, although they still have sufficient kinetic energy to move past each other. Intermolecular attractive forces, collectively referred to as van der Waals forces, are responsible for the behavior of liquids and solids and are electrostatic in nature.