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8: Amines and Amides

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    • 8.1: Amines - Structures and Names
      An amine is a derivative of ammonia in which one, two, or all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by hydrocarbon groups. Amines are classified as primary, secondary, or tertiary by the number of hydrocarbon groups attached to the nitrogen atom. Amines are named by naming the alkyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, followed by the suffix -amine.
    • 8.2: Physical Properties of Amines
      Primary and secondary amines have higher boiling points than those of alkanes or ethers of similar molar mass because they can engage in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Their boiling points are lower than those of alcohols because alcohol molecules have hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom, which is more electronegative. The boiling points of tertiary amines, which cannot engage in hydrogen bonding because they have no hydrogen atom on the nitrogen atom.
    • 8.3: Amines as Bases
      Amines are bases; they react with acids to form salts. Salts of aniline are properly named as anilinium compounds, but an older system is used to name drugs: the salts of amine drugs and hydrochloric acid are called “hydrochlorides.” Heterocyclic amines are cyclic compounds with one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring.
    • 8.4: Amides- Structures and Names
      Amides have a general structure in which a nitrogen atom is bonded to a carbonyl carbon atom. In names for amides, the -ic acid of the common name or the -oic ending of the IUPAC for the corresponding carboxylic acid is replaced by -amide.
    • 8.5: Physical Properties of Amides
      Most amides are solids at room temperature; the boiling points of amides are much higher than those of alcohols of similar molar mass. Amides of five or fewer carbon atoms are soluble in water.
    • 8.6: Formation of Amides
      Amides are prepared by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with ammonia or an amine.
    • 8.7: Chemical Properties of Amides- Hydrolysis
      The hydrolysis of an amide produces a carboxylic acid and ammonia or an amine.

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