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11: Organic Chemistry

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    We begin our study of organic chemistry with the alkanes, compounds containing only two elements, carbon and hydrogen, and having only single bonds. There are several other kinds of hydrocarbons, distinguished by the types of bonding between carbon atoms and by the properties that result from that bonding. We will examine several other types of hydrocarbons, then look at other organic functional groups including those with atoms like oxygen and nitrogen. Finally, we focus on organic acids and bases, after which we will be ready to look at the chemistry of life itself—biochemistry—in the remaining chapters.

    • 11.1: Organic Chemistry
      Today organic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of the carbon compounds, and inorganic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of all other elements. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds, nearly all of which also contain hydrogen atoms.
    • 11.2: Alkanes
      Simple alkanes exist as a homologous series, in which adjacent members differ by a CH_2 unit. Included here are some basics about alkane structure, names, and chemical properties.
    • 11.3: Condensed Structural and Line-Angle Formulas
      Condensed chemical formulas show the hydrogen atoms (or other atoms or groups) right next to the carbon atoms to which they are attached. Line-angle formulas imply a carbon atom at the corners and ends of lines. Each carbon atom is understood to be attached to enough hydrogen atoms to give each carbon atom four bonds.
    • 11.4: Cycloalkanes
      Many organic compounds have cyclic structures. Atoms bonded in rings have restricted rotation so cis-trans (geometric) isomerism exists when and there are two nonidentical groups on different carbons in the ring.
    • 11.5: Alkenes
      Alkenes are hydrocarbons with a carbon-to-carbon double bond. Double bonds have restricted rotation so cis-trans (geometric) isomerism exists when and there are two nonidentical groups on each doubly bonded carbon atom.
    • 11.6: IUPAC Nomenclature
      Organic molecules have both common names and systematic names, specified by IUPAC.
    • 11.7: Organic Compounds with Functional Groups
      The functional group, a structural arrangement of atoms and/or bonds, is largely responsible for the properties of organic compound families.
    • 11.8: Physical Properties of Organic Compounds
      Hydrocarbons --- like alkanes, cylcoalkanes, and alkenes --- are non-polar compounds that tend to be insoluble in water with low boiling and melting points. These physical properties can be influenced by the size of the molecules and the presence of polar functional groups.
    • 11.9: Chemical Properties: Carboxylic Acids
      Soluble carboxylic acids are weak acids in aqueous solutions. Carboxylic acids neutralize bases to form salts.
    • 11.10: Chemical Properties: Amines as Bases
      Amines are bases; they react with acids to form salts. Salts of aniline are properly named as anilinium compounds, but an older system is used to name drugs: the salts of amine drugs and hydrochloric acid are called “hydrochlorides.” Heterocyclic amines are cyclic compounds with one or more nitrogen atoms in the ring.
    • 11.E: Organic Chemistry (Exercises)
      Select problems and solutions to chapter.
    • 11.S: Organic Chemistry (Summary)
      Summary of Chapter.

    11: Organic Chemistry is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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