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7: Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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    • 7.1: States of Matter
      Another way that we can describe the properties of matter is the state (also called phase). The amount of energy in molecules of matter determines the state of matter. Matter can exist in one of several different states, including a gas, liquid, or solid state.
    • 7.2: State Changes and Energy
      Energy must be supplied to a solid in order to melt or vaporize it. On a microscopic level melting or vaporization involves separating molecules which are attracted to each other. The amount of energy needed to separate the molecules is proportional to the intermolecular forces between the molecules.
    • 7.3: Kinetic-Molecular Theory
      The kinetic-molecular theory is a theory that explains the states of matter and is based on the idea that matter is composed of tiny particles that are always in motion. The theory helps explain observable properties and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases. However, the theory is most easily understood as it applies to gases. The theory applies specifically to a model of a gas called an ideal gas.
    • 7.4: The Ideal Gas Equation
      Properties of gases such as pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and moles(n) are relatively easy to measure. Unlike with liquids and solids, the particles (molecules or atoms) in a gas phase sample are very far apart from one another. As a result, their behavior is much more predictable because intermolecular forces become insignificant for most samples in the gas phase even over a wide range of conditions. The presence of intermolecular forces makes their behavior harder to predict.
    • 7.5: Aqueous Solutions
      A solution is a homogenous mixture consisting of a solute dissolved into a solvent. The solute is the substance that is being dissolved, while the solvent is the dissolving medium. Solutions can be formed with many different types and forms of solutes and solvents. In this chapter, we will focus on solution where the solvent is water. An aqueous solution is water that contains one or more dissolved substance. The dissolved substances in an aqueous solution may be solids, gases, or other liquids.
    • 7.6: Colloids and Suspensions
      A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which some of the particles settle out of the mixture upon standing. The particles in a suspension are far larger than those of a solution, so gravity is able to pull them down out of the dispersion medium (e.g., water). A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture in which the dispersed particles are intermediate in size between those of a solution and a suspension. The particles are spread evenly throughout the medium, which can be a solid, liquid, or gas.
    • 7.7: Solubility
      Previously, we looked at the primary characteristics of a solution and how water is able to dissolve solid solutes. There are many examples of solutions that do not involve water at all, or solutions that involve solutes that are not solids.
    • 7.E: Solutions (Exercises)
      These are homework exercises to accompany Chapter 7 of the University of Kentucky's LibreText for CHE 103 - Chemistry for Allied Health. Solutions are available below the questions.

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